Skip to main content

Growth response ofTheobroma cacao L. seeldings to inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Summary

The effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) on the growth and phosphorus uptake of cocoa seedlings (Theobroma cacao L.) grown for 100 days in polythene bags, were studied at five levels of phosphorus fertilization in both steamed and unsterile Bungor Series soil (a fine clayey, kaolinitic isohyperthermic Typic Paleudult).

The cocoa seedlings responded well to phosphorus fertilization and mycorrhizal treatments. Plants inoculated with VAM fungi (Gigaspora spp.) gave the most vigorous growth and higher phosphorus in the leaf tissues in unsterile soil compared to plants grown in steamed soil. However, the mycorrhizal effect was significantly more pronounced (P<0.01) in plants grown in steamed than in unsterile soil. High levels of phosphorus application depressed mycorrhizal development. Phosphorus fertilizer applied at the rates of 250 and 500 ug g−1 soil gave maximum root colonization and spore counts in both soil types used.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Azizah Chulan (Hashim) and Ragu P 1984 Preliminary observations onGigaspora species inTheobroma cacao L. Seedlings.In Ismail Sahid, Zainal Abidin A Hasan, A Latiff Moahmed and A Salam Babji (eds.). Collection of Working Papers 4, Research Priorities in Malaysian Biology, pp. 347–351. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bethlenfalvay G Jet al. 1983. Parasitic and mutualistic associations between a mycorrhizal fungus and soybean: The effect of phosphorus on host plant-endophyte interactions. Physiol. Plant. 57, 543–548.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Gerdemann J W 1971 Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza and plant growth. Ann. Rev. Phytopath. 6, 397–418.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Hardy E 1971 Soil conditions and plant growth. Cocoa Growers. Bull. 17, 27–30.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Jakobsen I and Andersen A J 1982 Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza and growth in barley: Effects of irradiation and heating of soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 14, 171–178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Johnston A 1949. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza in Sea Island cotton and other tropical plants. Trop. Agric., Trinidad 26, 118–121.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Kucey R M N and Paul E A 1983 Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal spore populations in various Saskatchewan soils and the effect of inoculation withGlomus mosseae on Faba Bean growth in greenhouse and field trials. Can. J. Soil Sci. 63, 87–95.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Laycock D H 1945 Preliminary investigation into the function of the endotrophic mycorrhiza ofTheobroma cocao L. Trop. Agric. Trinidad 22, 77–80.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Mainstone B J, Thong K C and Tan K S 1973 Effects of lime and rock phosphate additions upon growth of young cocoa. Conf. on Fertilizers and Chemistry of Trop. Soils, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia pp. 60.

  10. Manjunath A and Bagyaraj D J 1981 Components of VA mycorrhizal inoculum and their effects on growth of onion. New Phytol. 87, 355–361.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Mosse B 1973 Plant growth response to vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza. IV. In soil given additional phosphate. New Phytol. 72, 127–136.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Pearson V and Read D J 1975 The physiology of the mycorrhizal endophyte ofCalluna vulgaris. Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 64, 1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Phillips J M and Hayman D S 1970. Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 55, 158–161.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Rayner M C 1939 The mycorrhizal habit in crop plants, with reference to cotton. Emp. Grow. Rev. 16, 171–179.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Teoh K C and Ramadasan K 1978 Effect of potting media composition on growth and development of young seedlings.In Proc. Int. Conf. on Cocoa and Coconuts, Kuala Lumpur. Inc. Soc. Planters, 179–191.

  16. Thomas R L, Sheard R N and Meyer J R 1972 Comparison of conventional and automated procedure for N, P and K analysis of plants. Am. Soc. of Agron. 59 240–243.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chulan (Hashim), A., Ragu, P. Growth response ofTheobroma cacao L. seeldings to inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil 96, 279–285 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02374771

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02374771

Key words

  • Mycorrhiza
  • Phosphorus
  • Plant growth
  • Theobroma cacao