Plant and Soil

, Volume 70, Issue 1, pp 27–35 | Cite as

The response of maize radicle orientation to soil solution and soil atmosphere

  • J. W. Yčas
  • R. W. Zobel
Article

Summary

Earlier reports suggest that the orientation of larger roots of maize is to some extent determined by the soil environment, especially water content and texture. Experiments were performed to determine the direct effect of soil water potential, macronutrient concentration, and concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ethylene and nitrous oxide on the plagiotropic orientation of maize radicles. Only carbon dioxide produced a large change, causing roots to orient less vertically downward. However, the concentration necessary to produce a large effect on root angle is greater than theoretical or observed values for aerobic soils. It is concluded that the radicle orientation of maize is not significantly influenced by chemical or atmospheric stimuli under field conditions, and that variations observed must be attributable to the effects of soil temperature16 or the effects of soil mechanical properties.

Key words

Carbon dioxide Geotropism Maize Roots Soil aeration Zea mays 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bennet M E 1904 Are roots aerotropic? Bot. Gaz. 37, 241–259.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bennet-Clark T A and Ball N G 1951 The diageotropic behavior of rhizomes, J. Exp. Bot. 2, 160–203.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cisielski T 1872 Untersuchungen uber die Abwartskrummung der Wurzel. Beit. Biol. Pflanz 1, 1–30.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dowdell R J, Smith K A, Cress R and Restall S W F 1972 Field studies in the soil atmosphere: equipment and preliminary results. Soil Biol. Biochem. 4, 325–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Drew M C and Saker L R 1975 Nutrient supply and the growth of the seminal root system in barley II. J. Exp. Bot. 26, 79–90.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goeschl J D and Kays S J 1975 Concentration dependencies of some effects of ethylene on etiolated pea, peanut, bean, and cotton seedlings. Plant Physiol. 55, 670–677.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Greenwood D J 1970 Distribution of carbon dioxide in the aqueous phase of aerobic soils. J. Soil Sci. 21, 314–329.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guhmann H 1924 Variation in the root system of the common everlastingGnaphalium polycephalum. Ohio J. Sci. 24, 199–207.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hawkins G W 1964 Some factors affecting early root development of corn. PhD Diss. Iowa State University.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hickman J C 1887 Root development of corn. Rep. Penn. State Coll. 2, 97.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Holman R M 1916 The orientation of primary terrestrial roots with particular reference to the medium in which they are grown. Am. J. Bot. 3, 274–318.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kristensen K J and Lemon E R 1964 Soil aeration and plant root relations III. Physical aspects of oxygen diffusion in the liquid phase of the soil. Agron. J. 56, 295–302.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jean F C and Weaver J 1924 Root Behavior and Crop Yield Under Irrigation. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. No. 357, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Millar C E 1930 Root systems of young corn plants in relation to fertilizer applications. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 22, 868–873.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Molisch H 1885 Uber die Ablenkung der Wurzeln von ihrer normalen Wachstumsrichtung durch Gase (Aerotropismus). Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 90, 111–196.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mosher P N and Miller M H 1972 Influence of soil temperature on the geotropic response of corn roots (Zea mays). Agron. J. 64, 459–462.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Porodko T M 1924 Uber den Diageotropismus der Hauptwurzeln bei Maiskeimlingen I. Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges. 42, 405–412.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Portas C A M 1973 Development of root systems during the growth of some vegetable crops. Plant and Soil 39, 507–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ten Eyck A M 1899 The study of root systems of wheat, oats, corn, flax, potatoes, and sugar beets. N. D. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 36, 334–341.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ten Eyck A M 1905 The roots of plants. Kans. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 127.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    van Raalte M H 1941 On the oxygen supply of rice roots. Ann. Bot. Gardens Buitenzorg 51, 43–57.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Weaver J E 1926 Root Development of Field Crops. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zopf P E and Nettles V F 1955 Root development of Contender snap beans. Fla. St. Hortic. Soc. 68, 175–177.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. W. Yčas
    • 1
  • R. W. Zobel
    • 2
  1. 1.Agronomy DepartmentCornell UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.USDA-ARS and Agronomy DepartmentCornell UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations