An evaluation of carbon disulphide as a sulphur fertilizer and as a nitrification inhibitor
- 36 Downloads
There was little release of extractable SO4-S during four weeks from CS2 applied by injecting into two S-deficient soils. In this incubation experiment, the rate of CS2 was 30 μg S g−, placement was injection at 9 cm depth, soil temperature was 20°C, and soil moisture tension was 33 kPa. The yield of barley forage after seven weeks in the greenhouse showed only small increases from 10 or 30 μg S g−1 of CS2 as compared to Na2SO4, on the two soils.
While CS2 supplied little plant available S in the short term, it was an effective inhibitor of nitrification. In the laboratory, or in the field, the injection of CS2 (with N fertilizers) at a point 9 cm into the soils either stopped or reduced nitrification. In one laboratory experiment, 35 μg of CS2 g−1 of soil with urea reduced nitrification for at least four weeks; and in another experiment 20 μg of CS2 g−1 of soil with aqua NH3 nearly or completely inhibited nitrification at 20 days. In two field experiments, 3 and 12 μg of CS2 g−1 of soil (or 6 and 24 kg ha−1) with aqua NH3 inhibited nitrification from October to the subsequent May. In addition, CS2 reduced the amount of ammonium produced from the soil N, both in these two field experiments and in the laboratory experiments. That is to say, CS2 injected at a point, inhibited both nitrification and ammonification.
In other field experiments, CS2 at a rate of 10 kg ha−1 was injected in bands 9 cm deep with urea in October, and by May there was still reduced nitrification. Less than half of the fall-applied urea alone was recovered as mineral N, but with the application of CS2 the recovery was increased to three-quarters.
The yield and N uptake of barley grain was increased where fall-applied banded urea or aqua NH3 received banded CS2, (NH4)2CS3, or K2CS3. The average increase in yield from fall-applied fertilizer, from inhibitor with fall-applied fertilizer, and from spring-applied fertilizer was 800, 1370, and 1900 kg ha−1, respectively. In the same order, the apparent % recovery of fertilizer N in grain was 24, 42, and 60.
Key wordsAmmonification inhibitor Ammonium trithiocarbonate Aqua ammonia Band placement Carbon disulphide Fall-applied N Mineralization of soil N Nitrification inhibitor Point placement Potassium trithiocarbonate Sulphur fertilizer Thiourea
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Ashworth J Briggs G G and Evans A A 1975 Field injection of carbon disulphide to inhibit nitrification of ammonia fertilizers. Chem. Ind. 6, 749–750.Google Scholar
- 2.Ashworth J, Briggs G G, Evans A A and Matala J 1977 Inhibition of nitrification by Ni carbon disulphide and trithiocarbonate. J. Sci. Fd. Agric. 28, 673–683.Google Scholar
- 4.Bremner J M 1965 Total nitrogen.In Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Ed. C A Blacket al. Agron. Mongr. No. 9, 1149–1178. Am. Soc. Agron. Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
- 5.Bremner J M and Bundy L G 1974 Inhibition of nitrification in soil by volatile sulphur compounds. Soil Biol. Biochem. 6, 161–165.Google Scholar
- 6.Bremner J M and Keeney D R 1966 Determination and isotope ratio analysis of different forms of nitrogen in soils: 3. Exchangeable ammonium, nitrate and nitrite by extraction distillation methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 30, 577–582.Google Scholar
- 7.Bundy L G and Bremner J M 1973 Inhibition of nitrification in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 37, 396–398.Google Scholar
- 8.Burns G R 1967 Oxidation of sulphur in soils. Sulphur Inst. Tech. Bull. 13.Google Scholar
- 9.Carson J A, Crepin J M and Nemunis-Siugzdinis P 1972 A sulphate sulphur method used to delineate the sulphur status of soils. Can. J. Soil. Sci. 52, 278–281.Google Scholar
- 10.Dean G A 1966 A simple colorimetric finish for the Johnson-Nishita microdistillation of sulphur. Analyst 91, 530–532.Google Scholar
- 11.Douglas L A and Bremner J M 1970 Extraction and colorimetric determination of urea in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 34, 859–861.Google Scholar
- 12.Fuller W H, Caster A B and McGeorge W T 1950 Behavior of nitrogenous fertilizers in alkaline calcareous soils — 1. Nitrifying characteristics of some organic compounds under controlled conditions. Ariz. Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 120, 451–467.Google Scholar
- 13.Gasser J K R 1965 Effects of 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine on the nitrification of ammonium sulphate and its recovery by rye grass. J. Agric. Sci. 64, 299–303.Google Scholar
- 14.Goring C A 1962 Control of nitrification by 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine. Soil Sci. 93, 211–218.Google Scholar
- 15.Harron W R and Malhi S S 1978 Release of sulphate from the oxidation of thiourea and ammonium-polysulphide. Can. J. Soil Sci. 58, 109–111.Google Scholar
- 16.Huber D M Murray G A and Crane J M 1969 Inhibition of nitrification as a deterrent to nitrogen loss. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 33, 975–976.Google Scholar
- 17.Huber D M and Watson R D 1972 Nitrogen form and plant disease. Down Earth 27, 14–15.Google Scholar
- 18.Jaques R P Robinson J B and Chase F E 1959 Effects of thiourea, ethyl urethane and some dithiocarbamate fungicides on nitrification in Fox Sandy Loam. Can. J. Soil Sci. 39, 235–243.Google Scholar
- 19.Jensen H L and Sorensen H 1952 The influence of some organic sulphur compounds and enzyme inhibitors onNitrosomonas europea. Acta Agric. Scand. 2, 295–304.Google Scholar
- 20.Johnson C M and Nishita Hideo 1952 Micro-estimation of sulphur in plant materials, soils, irrigation waters. Anal. Chem. 24, 736–742.Google Scholar
- 23.Malhi S S 1978 Losses of mineral nitrogen over the winter in Chernozemic and Luvisolic soils. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.Google Scholar
- 24.Malhi S S and Nyborg M 1979 Ni rate formation during winter from fall-applied urea. Soil Biol. Biochem. 11, 439–441.Google Scholar
- 26.McBeath D K 1962 The inhibition of nitrification by thiourea and 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Michigan, U.S.A.Google Scholar
- 27.Nyborg M, Malhi S S, Timmermans J and Leitch R H 1977 Losses of crop available N from soils.In Agric. For. Bull. 33, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Springer 1977. 33–39.Google Scholar
- 29.Quastel M H and Scholefield P G 1949 Influence of organic nitrogen compounds on nitrification in soil. Nature London 164, 1068–1072.Google Scholar
- 30.Quastel J H and Scholefield P G 1951 Biochemistry of nitrification in soil Bacteriol. Rev. 15, 1–53.Google Scholar
- 31.Starkey R L 1950 Relations of microorganisms to transformations of sulphur in soils. Soil Sci. 70, 55–65.Google Scholar
- 32.Tisdale S L and Nelson W L 1975 Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc., New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
- 33.Weil C C 1966 Effect of mixing thiourea with ammonium sulphate on nitrification of ammonia in a tropical soil. Advg. Frontiers Pl. Sci. 13, 195–198.Google Scholar