, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 587–591 | Cite as

The influence of male presence or absence on the reproductive cycle of celebes black ape females (Macaca nigra)

  • Irwin S. Bernstein
  • Katherine Bruce
  • Lawrence Williams
Short Communications


The effect of male presence on female menstrual cycles was studied in a group of 13 adult female and 3 adult male Celebes black apes (Macaca nigra) living in an outdoor enclosure. When males were absent, all cycling females had longer durations of maximal perineal swelling. Overall cycle length also appeared to be longer when males were absent, but there was no statistically significant increase. The data suggest that male absence results in a longer late follicular stage, perhaps indicating a delay in ovulation. Whereas these findings do imply that male presence may influence female macaque reproductive condition, it is acknowledged that this effect is much weaker than the demonstrated influence of female macaques on male reproductive state.


Adult Male Menstrual Cycle Adult Female Animal Ecology Cycle Length 
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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irwin S. Bernstein
    • 1
    • 2
  • Katherine Bruce
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lawrence Williams
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Georgia and Emory UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensU.S.A.

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