Entomophaga

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 313–319 | Cite as

Parasites ofEctomyelois ceratoniae with biological studies onApanteles sp.Group ultor in Iraq

  • S. K. Al-Maliky
  • M. A. J. Al-Izzi
Article

Abstract

Apanteles sp.group ultor [Hym.: Braconidae] is the dominant and most widely distributed parasite ofEctomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller). The parasitization percent was increased from 10 % during April to 35 % at the end of the pomegranate fruiting season at October. Female parasite preferred to infest the host larvae at the age of, 2–3 days than 7 day old. The average number of host larvae parasitized by single female parasite was 58 under the rearing conditions of 27±2 °C., 55±10% RH and photoperiod of 16 h light per day.

Parasites other thanA. spgroup ultor were:Bracon hebetor Say.,Ascogaster sp., andPhanerotoma sp. [Braconidae];Nemeritis canescens Grav. [Ichneumonidae];Brachymeria sp., andB. aegyptiaca Masi [Chalcididae]; and the secondary parasitePerilampus tristis Mayr [Perilampidae].

Key-Words

Ectomyelois ceratoniae parasites Apanteles sp.group ultor pomegranate fruits 

Résumé

Apanteles sp.groupe ultor [Hym.: Braconidae] est le parasite dominant et le plus largement représenté d'Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller). Le pourcentage de parasitisme augmentait depuis le chiffre de 10 % constaté en avril jusqu'à celui de 35 % observé en octobre à la fin de la saison de fructification des grenadiers. La ♀ du parasite préfère attaquer la jeune larve de l'hôte, âgée de 2 à 3 jours, plutôt que celle plus âgée (7 jours). Le nombre moyen de larves hôtes parasitées par une simple ♀ était de 58 dans les conditions d'élevage de 27±2 °C, 55±10 % d'humidité relative et de 16 h de lumière quotidienne.

Les parasites autres qu'A. sp.groupe ultor furent:Bracon hebetor Say,Ascogaster sp. etPhanerotoma sp. [Braconidae];Nemeritis canescens Grav. [Ichneumonidae];Brachymeria sp., etB. aegyptiaca Masi [Chalcididae] et le parasite secondairePerilampus tristis Mayr [Perilampidae].

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alam, M.M. — 1980. Biological and ecological factors affecting populations of sugarcane moth-borerDiatraea saccharalis [Lep.: Pyralidae] in Barbados, W.I. —Entomophaga, 25, 400–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Izzi, M.A.J. — 1982. A survey on some insect pests and their parasites on pomegranate fruits in Iraq. NRC.BA. 62. —Iraqi Atomic Energy Comm., pp. 14.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Izzi, M.A.J., Al-Maliky, S.K., Al-Badry, M.S. & Jabbo, N.F. — 1983. Carob mothEctomyelois ceratoniae nutrition: An Introduction to the use and preparation of artificial diet. —Iraqi Atomic Energy Comm., AB.pp. 13-1983-1.Google Scholar
  4. Beckage, N.E. &Riddiford, L.M. — 1978. Developmental interactions between the tobacco horn wormManduca sexta and its braconid parasiteApanteles congregatus. —Entomol. Exp. Appl., 23, 139–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biliotti, E. &Daumal, J. — 1969. Biology ofPhanerotoma flavitestacea Fisher [Hym.: Braconidae]. Improvement of a method of permanent mass breeding toward biological control ofEctomyelois ceratoniae Zell. —Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anim., 1, 379–394.Google Scholar
  6. Cardona, C. &Oatman, E.R. — 1971. Biology ofApanteles dignus Muesebeck [Hym.: Braconidae] a primary parasite of tomato pinworm. —Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 64, 996–1007.Google Scholar
  7. Cardona, C. &Oatman, E.R. — 1975. Biology and physical ecology ofApanteles subandinus Blanchard [Hym.: Braconidae], with notes on temperature responses ofApanteles scutellaris Muesebeck and its host, the potato tuberworm. —Hilgardia, 43, 1–51.Google Scholar
  8. Gothilf, S. — 1969. Natural enemies of the carob mothEctomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller). —Entomophaga, 14, 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Khairee, I.M., Sulaiman, S.S. & Abdulla M.Kh. — 1978. Carob moth infesting pomegranate fruits.Minist. Agric. Agrar. Reform. Div. Gen. Pl. Prot. Entomol. Dept. Tech. Bull., 1 (pp. (in Arabic).Google Scholar
  10. Nixon, G.E.J. — 1976. A revision of the north-western European species of themerula, lacteus, vipio, ultor, ater, butalidis, popularis, carbonarius andvalidus-groups ofApanteles Forster [Hym.: Braconidae]. —Bull. Entomol. Res., 65, 687–732.Google Scholar
  11. Subba Rao, B.R., Singh, R.N., Saxena, J.D. &Sharma, A.K. — 1969. Bionomics ofApanteles flavipes (Cameron) a parasite ofChilo zonellus (zwinhoe) at Delhi with special reference to the mode of over wintering of the parasite. —Indian J. Entomol., 31, 7–12.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Lavoisier Abonnements 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. K. Al-Maliky
    • 1
  • M. A. J. Al-Izzi
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Protection Department Agriculture and Biology FacultyNuclear Research CenterBaghdadIRAQ

Personalised recommendations