, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 437–447 | Cite as

Ethogram of Celebes monkeys (Macaca nigra) in two captive habitats

  • Sally A. Nickelson
  • Joan S. Lockard


A well-composed and stable group of Celebes monkeys in captivity (one dominant adult male, one sub-adult male, three juvenile males, three adult females, and two juvenile females; housed together for several years) were studied in three successive 10-week periods. The first two periods consisted of a preliminary study and replication of the animals' behaviors while in a large cage enclosure. In the third period, observations were gathered on the same animals while they were on a simulated island to which they had been permanently moved. The study was designed to obtain an ethogram on the monkeys as well as to compare their social behaviors in these two captive environments. With respect to the latter, the acquisition of an acculturated social behavior involving a water-filled moat surrounding their new island environment was observed.


Cage Adult Male Social Behavior Adult Female Animal Ecology 
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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sally A. Nickelson
    • 1
  • Joan S. Lockard
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleU.S.A.

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