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Entomophaga

, Volume 39, Issue 3–4, pp 351–361 | Cite as

Metarhizium spp. isolates from madagascar: Morphology and effect of high temperature on growth and infectivity to the migratory locust,Locusta migratoria

  • M. Welling
  • G. Nachtigall
  • G. Zimmermann
Article

Abstract

Five strains ofMetarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and one strain ofMetarhizium flavoviride Gams & Rozsypal originally isolated in Madagascar were studied. Measurements of conidia and, for the first time, also of blastospores produced in a liquid medium were used for species and variety determination. Blastospores ofM. flavoviride were more homogenous in their size than those ofM. anisopliae. Growth at high temperatures between 25° and 40°C showed that 4 isolates ofM. anisopliae grew at 36°C andM. flavoviride grew at 38°C. Using alternating day/night temperatures (8/16 h) the three strains tested could also tolerate 40°/25°C. In bioassays, fiveMetarhizium spp. isolates were tested against third and fourth instar larvae ofLocusta migratoria (L.) at two alternating day/night temperatures of 30°/25°C and 36°/25°C. In the cooler regime, all strains caused a mortality of 50% within 5.9 to 8.5 days (median lethal time), while in the 36°/25°C treatment only the thermophilicM. flavoviride and oneM. anisopliae strain isolated from a soil sample gave comparable results with median lethal times of 6.8 and 7.3 days, respectively.

Key-Words

Metarhizium anisopliae Metarhizium flavoviride morphology temperature Locusta migratoria Madagascar 

Résumé

Les auteurs ont étudié cinq souches deMetarhizium anisopliae et une souche deM. flavoviride isolées à Madagascar. Les blastospores de la seconde espèce apparaissent plus homogènes de taille que celles deM. anisopliae. Quatre des 5 souches de cette espèce peuvent croître à 36°C tandis que l'isolat deM. flavoviride se développe à 38°C (températures constantes). Cette souche ainsi que deux souches deM. anisopliae sont capables de croître à des températures de 40°C (pendant 8 h) alternant avec des températures de 25°C (pendant 16 h). Dans les essais d'infection de stades L3/L4 deLocusta migratoria à une température de 30°C (pendant 8 h) alternant avec une température de 25°C (pendant 16 h), les 4 souches deM. anisopliae et la souche deM. flavoviride ont toutes donné une mortalité de 50% en 5,9–8,5 jours. Dans le cas où la température est de 36° au lieu de 30°C (pendant 8 h), seule la souche deM. flavoviride et une souche deM. anisopliae isolée du sol ont donné des mortalités élevées.

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Copyright information

© Lavoisier Abonnements 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Welling
    • 1
  • G. Nachtigall
    • 1
  • G. Zimmermann
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and ForestryInstitute for Biological ControlDarmstadtGermany

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