Plant and Soil

, Volume 104, Issue 2, pp 263–268 | Cite as

Seedling emergence of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides L.) Effect of differential soil crusting, as induced by raindrop size, and depth of sowing

  • B. Sivaprasad
  • K. S. Sundara Sarma


The effects of differential soil crusting, as achieved by varying the raindrop size, and depth of sowing on seedling emergence of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides L.) were investigated. Three drop diameters: 2.75, 1.65 and 0.93 mm and four depths of sowing: 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm were studied. Mean time of emergence increased with increase in raindrop size and depth of sowing. Crops differed in their emergence capacity under adverse soil conditions from delay in the emergence of chickpea to complete failure in the case of pigeonpea. Pearl millet was not significantly affected by drop size but was found to be sensitive to depths beyond 4 cm. Within the chickpea crop, the variety H 208 was observed to have better emergence qualities than Pusa 209. Other parameters like epicotyl diameter, swelling index, and the area of crust broken by the emerging seedling were measured.

Key words

Cajanus cajan L. Cicer arietinum L. Pennisetum typhoides L. raindrop size seedling emergence soil crusting sowing depth 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arndt W 1965 The impedance of soil seals and forces of emerging seedlings. Aust. J. Soil Res. 3, 45–54.Google Scholar
  2. Bavale B L and Lakhdive B A 1977 Effect of soil compaction and depth of seed placement on the emergence of different crops. The Madras Agric. J. 64, 351–355.Google Scholar
  3. Ellison W D 1947 Son erosion studies—Part II. Soil detachment hazards by raindrop splash. Agric. Engg. 28, 197–201.Google Scholar
  4. Emerson B N and Minor H C 1979 Response of soybean to high temperature during germination. Crop Sci. 19, 553–556.Google Scholar
  5. Fehr W R, Burris J S and Gilman D F 1973 Soybean emergence under field conditions. Agron. J. 65, 740–742.Google Scholar
  6. Goyal M R, Drew L O and Carpenter T G 1982 Analytical prediction of seedling emergence force. Trans. ASAE 25, 38–41.Google Scholar
  7. Grabe D F and Metzer R B 1969 Temperature induced inhibition of soybean hypocotyl elongation and seedling emergence. Crop Sci. 9, 331–333.Google Scholar
  8. Hadas A and Stibbe E 1977 Seedling emergence of wheat seedlings. Agron. J. 69, 547–550.Google Scholar
  9. Heydecker W 1956 Establishment of seedlings in the field: I. Influence of sowing depth on seedling emergence. J. Hort. Sci. 31, 76–87.Google Scholar
  10. Laws J O 1941 Measurement of the fall-velocity of water drops and raindrops. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union Part III, 709–721.Google Scholar
  11. Meyer L D and McCune D L 1958 Rainfall simulator for runoff plots. Agric. Engg. 39, 644–648.Google Scholar
  12. Parker Jr J J and Taylor H M 1965 Soil strength and seedling emergence relations: I. Soil type, moisture tension, temperature and planting depth effects. Agron. J. 57, 289–291.Google Scholar
  13. Raats P A C 1985 Kinematics and dynamics of seedling emergence.In Assessment of Soil Surface Sealing and Crusting. Eds. F Callebaut, D Gabriels and M De Boodt. pp 252–261. Proc. of the Symposium held in Ghent, Belgium.Google Scholar
  14. Rathore T R, Ghildyal B P and Sachan R S 1981 Germination and emergence of soybean under crusted soil conditions. I. Effect of crust impedance to seedling eraergence. Plant and Soil 62, 97–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Sivaprasad B and Sundara Sarma K S 1987 Effect of temperature on seedling growth under impeding conditions. Plant and Soil 101, 141–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Stucky O J 1976 Effect of planting depth, temperature and cultivars on emergence and yield of double cropped soybeans. Agron. J 68, 291–294.Google Scholar
  17. Taylor H M 1962 Seedling emergence of wheat, grain sorghum and guar as affected by rigidity and thickness of surface crusts. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 26, 431–433.Google Scholar
  18. Taylor H M 1971 Effects of soil strength on seedling emergence, root growth and crop yield.In Compaction of Agricultural Soils, ASAE Monograph, St. Joseph, MI 49085. pp 292–305.Google Scholar
  19. Varade S B and Ghildyal B P 1968 Effect of bulk density and seed placement on upland rice seedling emergence. Agron. J. 60, 240–241.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Sivaprasad
    • 1
  • K. S. Sundara Sarma
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Agricultural PhysicsIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations