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Entomophaga

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 199–212 | Cite as

A history of the biological and integrated control of red scale,Aonidiella aurantii on citrus in the lower Murray valley of Australia

  • G. O. Furness
  • G. A. Buchanan
  • R. S. George
  • N. L. Richardson
Article

Abstract

In the lower Murray valley of Australia, the major insect pest of citrus, California red scaleAonidiella aurantii (Maskell), is controlled by a number of introduced hymenopterous parasites. Parasite introductions began in 1943, and continued until 1979. Eight species, especially in the Encyrtid genusAphytis, were introduced and mass released. The only species to become permanently established wereAphytis chrysomphali Mercet,Comperiella bifasciata (Howard),A. melinus DeBach, andProspaltella perniciosi (Tower).A. melinus, introduced in 1961, has become widely established throughout the region, is the dominant and most important parasite, and now appears to have completely displacedA. chrysomphali (1954) in all areas.C. bifasciata (1943) is also an important parasite and is distributed throughout the area.P. perniciosi (1970) is established on a few orchards near Mildura.

Most of the work on the biological and integrated control of red scale began with the establishment of laboratory and insectary facilities at Mildura in 1967 and Loxton in 1968. A commercial insectary was also established at Loxton in 1971.

Biological methods of insect control were first used commercially during 1944 (war period) by a few citrus growers at Merbein in Sunraysia. However, the adoption of biological and integrated methods for the control of red scale and other citrus pests, began on a large scale in the late 1960's. The use of organophosphate insecticides on citrus has declined since that time and has been close to zero since about 1977. Parasites and petroleum oil sprays have been used together in an integrated approach to the control of California red scale on some orchards. The biological control of this key pest has led to a decline in the incidence of secondary pests to the point where all insect pests of citrus are now regarded as being under effective biological control. The incidence of red scale, and other pests, has been less under biological and integrated control than it ever was when chemical control measures were widely used in the 1960's. Factors which have contributed to the success of the programme are discussed.

Keywords

Integrate Control Organophosphate Insecticide Secondary Pest Effective Biological Control Important Parasite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Résumé

Dans la vallée inférieure de la rivière Murray en Australie, le principal ravageur des citrus, le pou de Californie,Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) est contrôlé par de nombreux hyménoptères parasites introduits. Les introductions de parasites ont commencé en 1943 et furent poursuivies jusqu'en 1979. Huit espèces, en particulier des encyrtides du genreAphytis, ont été élevées en masse et lâchées. Les seules espèces établies de façon permanente furentAphytis chrysomphali Mercet,Comperiella bifasciata (Howard),A. melinus DeBach etProspaltella perniciosi (Tower).A. melius, importé en 1961, s'est rapidement installé dans toute la région; c'est le parasite le plus important et dominant qui a maintenant déplacéA. chrysomphali, introduit en 1954, dans tous les secteurs.C. bifasciata (1943) est également un parasite important distribué dans toute la superficie considérée.P. perniciosi (1970) est établi dans un petit nombre de vergers près de Mildura.

L'essentiel des travaux sur la lutte biologique et intégrée contre la cochenille a commencé par l'installation de laboratoires et d'insectariums à Mildura en 1967 et à Loxton en 1968. Un insectarium commercial a été également construit à Loxton en 1971. Les méthodes de lutte biologique furent d'abord employées dans la pratique en 1944, pendant la guerre, par quelques arboriculteurs à Merbein dans le Sunraysia. Toutefois l'adoption des méthodes de lutte biologique et intégrée contre la cochenille et les autres ravageurs des citrus a commencé à une grande échelle à la fin des années 60. L'utilisation des insecticides organophosphorés s'est réduite depuis cette époque pour devenir proche de zéro en 1977. Les parasites et les pulvérisations d'huiles de pétrole ont été employés ensemble, dans quelques vergers, selon l'esprit de la lutte intégrée, pour lutter contre le pou de Californie.

Le recours à la lutte biologique contre ce ravageur a provoqué un déclin des ravageurs secondaires à un degré tel qu'ils sont considérés maintenant comme contrôlés par leurs ennemis naturels.

Les facteurs qui ont contribué au succès de ce programme de lutte intégrée sont discutés.

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Copyright information

© Lavoisier Abonnements 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. O. Furness
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • G. A. Buchanan
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • R. S. George
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • N. L. Richardson
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of AgricultureResearch CentreLoxton
  2. 2.Sunraysia Horticultural Research InstituteIrymple
  3. 3.Biological ServicesLoxton
  4. 4.Roseworthy Agricultural CollegeRoseworthyAustralia

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