Entomophaga

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 3–21 | Cite as

Selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to arthropod natural enemies and pests of agricultural crops

  • B. A. Croft
  • M. E. Whalon
Article

Abstract

Data on the toxicity and selectivity of synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) to arthropod natural enemies and their host or prey are reviewed with emphasis on cotton, apple, alfalfa, cereal and vegetable inhabiting species. Generally, SPs are variably toxic and selective (in relation to their hosts or prey) to species within most families of natural enemies. Exceptions are low to moderate toxicity and favorable selectivity to most hemipteran predators, and high toxicity and unfavorable selectivity to virtually all phytoseiid mites in comparison to their prey. In North America, SPs are more favorably selective to cotton natural enemies over their prey or host than to apple inhabiting species. These differences may be due to intrinsic levels of susceptibility (preselection levels) between the types of natural enemies exploited on both crops in IPM programs (i.e. hemipteran species on cotton versus phytoseiid mites on apple) and/or to tolerances or resistances differences due to previous patterns of chemical use on these crops. Possible means of increasing selective use of SPs in future IPM systems based on ecological and physiological selectivity including the development of SP-resistant predators are discussed.

Keywords

Natural Enemy Trop Pyrethroid Insecticide Fenvalerate Synthetic Pyrethroid 

Résumé

Les composés courants à base de pyréthroides, la perméthrine et le fenvalerate, ont un large spectre d'activité contre de nombreux ravageurs des cultures et leur emploi dans l'avenir est assuré sur une grande variété de cultures. Actuellement ces compoés présentent une sélectivité favorable à l'égard de certains ennemis naturels par rapport à leurs hôtes. Cependant, si l'on considère le contexte de l'ensemble du complexe ravageur/ennemi naturel associé à une culture déterminée, ces pyréthroides sont généralement trop toxiques pour les cortèges d'ennemis naturels et ont une activité trop variable contre beaucoup d'espèces nuisibles secondaires (d'après les données concernant les ravageurs du coton et du pommier).

Pour l'application future de la protection intégrée, on doit développé la mise au point des méthodes sélectivité écologique pour les pyrethroides couramment disponibles, ainsi que la sélection d'ennemis naturels résistants dans le cas de cultures subissant des traitements intensifs, comme le coton et le pommier. Pour les pyrèthroides de l'avenir, des efforts sont à faire, par le «screening» et la recherche sur les rapports structure activité, afin de trouver des composés ayant des toxicités plus uniformes (pas nécessairement élevées) pour les ravageurs secondaires (par exemple les pucerons et les acariens) et présentant le minimum d'effets dommageables aux auxiliaires. Même s'il n'est probablement pas possible de satisfaire les exigences précises pour l'obtention d'un pyrèthroide idéalement sélectif (voir tableau 7), des progrès considérables dans la découverte et le développement de composés ayant la plupart de ces propriétés idéales sont envisageables.

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Copyright information

© Balthazar Publications 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. Croft
    • 1
  • M. E. Whalon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Entomology, Pesticide Research CenterMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

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