, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 237–248 | Cite as

Biology of the spiderChiracanthium mildei [Arachnida: Clubionidae]

  • F. Mansour
  • D. Rosen
  • A. Shulov


The biology ofChiracanthium mildeiL. Koch was studied under standardized laboratory conditions (24±1°C, 55–60% RH). Specimens were reared from eggs, with 1- to 6-day-oldSpodoptera larvae serving as prey throughout their life cycle. Biological studies included an investigation of the rate of development, life cycle, reproductive potential and behavior, as well as the influence of certain environmental factors on these parameters. Under standard laboratory conditions,C. mildei showed 87% survival from egg to functional fertility. Males required a mean of 182 (137–207) days after hatching to reach maturity, became adults following 7–8 molts, and lived for an average of 73 days as adults. Females required a mean of 231 (191–286) days after hatching to mature, reached adulthood after 9–10 molts, and lived for an average of 240 days as adults. Females were found to mate only once and to oviposit from 1 to 5 times (average 1.8), at 30-day intervals. They produced a mean of 35 eggs in the 1st hatch and 31 eggs in the 2nd.


Life Cycle Environmental Factor Plant Pathology Laboratory Condition Standard Laboratory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


La biologie de l'araignéeChiracanthium mildeiL. Koch a été étudiée au laboratoire (24±1°C. 55–60% H.R.). Les élevages ont été conduits à partir des œufs, avec des larves deSpodoptera de 1 à 6 j fournies comme proies pendant toute la durée du cycle évolutif. Les études biologiques ont porté sur la vitesse de développement, le cycle évolutif, le potentiel et le comportement de reproduction, ainsi que sur l'influence de certains facteurs du milieu sur ces paramètres. Dans les conditions du laboratoire, le taux de survie deC. mildei fut de 87% de l'œuf à la maturité sexuelle. Chez les mâles la maturité est atteinte en moyenne 182 j (137–207) après l'éclosion de l'œuf. Ils deviennent adultes après 7 ou 8 mues et vivent en moyenne 73 j. Chez les femelles on compte une moyenne de 231 j (191–386) de l'éclosion de l'œuf à la maturité. Elles deviennent adultes après 9 ou 10 mues et vivent en moyenne 240 j. Les femelles s'accouplent 1 fois mais pondent 1 à 5 fois (moyenne 1,8) en 30 j. Leur fécondité moyenne est de 35 œufs lors de la 1re ponte et de 31 œufs pour la 2e.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bilsing, S. W. — 1920. Quantitative studies in the food of spiders. —Ohio J. Sci., 20, 215–260.Google Scholar
  2. Bonnet, P. — 1954–1961.Bibliographia Araneorum (3 vols). —Les Frères Douladoure, Toulouse.Google Scholar
  3. — — 1960. La mue, l'autotomie et la régénération chez les araignées avec une étude desDolomedes d'Europe. —Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse, 81, 185–250.Google Scholar
  4. Bristowe, W. S. — 1941. The Comity of Spiders, I & II. —The Ray Society, London.Google Scholar
  5. Deevey, G. B. — 1949. The developmental history ofLatrodectus mactans (Fabr.) at different rates of feeding. —Amer. Midl. Nat., 42, 189–219.Google Scholar
  6. Dondale, C. D. — 1966. The spider fauna [Araneida] of deciduous orchards in the Australian Capital Territory. —Aust J. Zool., 14, 1157–1191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Edwards, R. J. — 1958. The spider subfamilyClubioninae of the United States, Canada and Alaska [Araneae: Clubioninae]. —Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Univ., 118, 365–436.Google Scholar
  8. Gerhardt, U. — 1921. Vergleichende Studien über die Morphologie des männlichen Tasters und die Biologie der Kopulation der Spinnen. Versuch einer zusammenfassenden Darstellung auf Grund einiger Beobachtungen. —Arch. Naturgesch., 87, 78–247.Google Scholar
  9. Iwata, K. — 1942. Comparative studies on the habits of solitary wasps. —Tenthredo, 4, 1–151.Google Scholar
  10. Juberthie, C. — 1954. Sur les cycles biologiques des araignées. —Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse, 39, 299–318.Google Scholar
  11. Kaestner, A. — 1968. OrderAraneae, Spiders. Chap. II in: Invertebrate Zoology, Vol. 2. — Translated and adapted byH. W. Levi & L. R. Levi. —Interscience Publ., New York.Google Scholar
  12. Kayashima, I. — 1960. Studies on spiders as natural enemies of crop pests: I. Daily activities of spiders in the cabbage fields, establishment of spiders liberated in the fields, and evaluation of the effectiveness of spiders against crop pests. —Sci. Bull. Fac. Agric. Kyushu Univ., 18, 1–24.Google Scholar
  13. Lecaillon, A. — 1904. Sur la biologie et la psychologie d'une araignée (Chiracanthium carnifex Fabricius). —Ann. Psychol., 10, 63–83.Google Scholar
  14. Mansour, F., Rosen, D. &Shulov, A. 1980a. A survey of spider populations [Araneae] in sprayed and unsprayed apple orchards in Israel and their ability to feed on larvae ofSpodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). —Act. Oecol., Oecol. Appl., 1, 189–197.Google Scholar
  15. Mansour, F., Rosen, D., Shulov, A. & Plaut, H. N. — 1980b. Evaluation of spiders as biological control agents ofSpodoptera littoralis larvae on apple in Israel. —Acta Oecol., Oecol. Appl., 1.Google Scholar
  16. Nielson, E. — 1935. A third supplementary note on the life histories of polysphinctas. —Entomol. Medd., 19, 191–215.Google Scholar
  17. — — 1936. The biology ofHomonotus sanguinolentus Fabr. —Entomol. Medd., 19, 385–404.Google Scholar
  18. Peck, W. B. & Whitcomb, W. H. — 1970. Studies on the biology of a spider.Chiracanthium inclusum (Hentz). —Bull. Ark. Exp. Stn., 753.Google Scholar
  19. Rovner, J. S. — 1966. Courtship in spiders without prior sperm induction. —Science, 152, 543–544.Google Scholar
  20. Savory, T. H. — 1928. The Biology of Spiders. —Macmillan, N. Y.Google Scholar
  21. Spielman, A. &Levi, H. W. — 1970. Probable envenomation byChiracanthium mildei, a spider found found in houses. —Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 19, 692–732.Google Scholar
  22. Turnbull, A. L. — 1960. The prey of the spiderLinyphia triangularis Clerck [Araneae, Linyphiidae]. —Can. J. Zool., 38, 859–873.Google Scholar
  23. — — 1962. Quantitative studies of the food ofLinyphia triangularis Clerck [Araneae: Linyphiidae]. —Can. Entomol., 94, 1223–1249.Google Scholar
  24. Whitcomb, W. H. & Bell, K. — 1964. Predaceous insects, spiders and mites of Arkansas cotton fields. —Bull. Ark. Agric. Exp. Stn., 690.Google Scholar
  25. Whitcomb, W. H., Exline, H. &Hunter, R. C. — 1963. Spiders of the Arkansas cotton field. —Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 56, 653–660.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Le François 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Mansour
    • 1
  • D. Rosen
    • 2
  • A. Shulov
    • 3
  1. 1.Div. of EntomologyARO, Newe Ya'ar, P.O.HaifaIsrael
  2. 2.Div. of EntomologyThe Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of AgricultureRehovotIsrael
  3. 3.Div. of EntomologyThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations