De Economist

, Volume 127, Issue 2, pp 209–254 | Cite as

The needs for international monetary reserves, exchange rate flexibility, and joining a currency area

  • H. Jager


The needs for reserves, exchange rate flexibility and monetary policy are derived, the need being the result of an optimization problem. The level of domestic production, its variance and that of the domestic price level have been chosen as criteria of the benefits and costs. The effectiveness and costs of balance of payments adjustment, which appear to be co-determinants of the needs, are expressed in the parameters of an economic model. This shows that the need for reserves displays a one-to-one relation to quantities of the demand for money and to the balance of payments disturbance. Only the latter is a meaningful criterion for joining a currency area.


Exchange Rate Monetary Policy International Economic Public Finance Domestic Production 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Jager
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Groningenthe Netherlands

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