, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 301–309 | Cite as

Host specificity of phytophagous organisms and the evolutionary centres of plant genera or sub-genera

  • A. J. Wapshere


Chondrilla juncea is an important weed in Australia. The morphology, ecology and chromosome number of species of the genusChondrilla indicate that the generic centre of evolution is in southern. Bussia and that dispersal has occurred westwards, as far as western Europe, with a reduction in the number ofChondrilla species.

The number of organisms specific toChondrilla also increases as one approaches the generic centre of evolution. Therefore, to discover the greatest number of specific, biological control organisms for a weed, surveys should commence initially at its generic evolutionary centre.

The application of this principle to genera of other important Australian weeds, namely toEchium which has two evolutionary centres and toHeliotropium which has a number of sub-generic evolutionary centres is discussed.


Plant Pathology Biological Control Chromosome Number Plant Genus Host Specificity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Chondrilla juncea est une mauvaise herbe importante en Australie. L'écologie, la morphologie et le nombre chromosomique des espèces deChondrilla indiquent que le centre de diversification de ce genre est la Russie méridionale. A partir de cette région, la dispersion en direction de l'ouest a atteint l'Europe occidentale, parallèlement à une diminution du nombre des espèces deChondrilla.

Le nombre des organismes spécifiques àChondrilla augmente à mesure qu'on se rapproche du centre de diversification. En vue de découvrir le nombre maximum d'organismes spécifiques propres à la lutte biologique contre une mauvaise herbe, les recherches doivent en conséquence commencer au centre de diversification.

L'application de ce principe à d'autres genres de mauvaises herbes importantes en Australie est discutée, en particulier pourEchium, dont on connaît deux centres de diversification, etHeliotropium dont chaque sous-genre a un centre de diversification.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Carèsche, L. — 1973. The host specialization of three insects and a mite living onChondrilla juncea. — Proc. 2nd int. Symp. Biol. control weeds, Rome 1971 (in press).Google Scholar
  2. Dirsh, V. — 1933. Pests of rubber producing plants in the Ukraine. —Zhurnal cycle. Bio-Zool. Acad. Sci. Ukr., 4; 41–57.Google Scholar
  3. Emelyanova, N. A., Pravdin, F. N., Kuzina, O. S. &Lisitzuina, L. N. — 1932. Biology and ecology ofSphenoptera foveola Gebl. in relation to the formation of callus onChondrilla. —Trans. Rubber Guttaperch. Inst. Leningrad, 6, 10–27.Google Scholar
  4. Goeden, R. D. — 1971. Insect ecology of silver leaf nightshade. —Weed Sci., 19, 45–51.Google Scholar
  5. Harris, P. — 1971. Current approaches to biological control of weeds. Biological control programmes against insects and weeds in Canada. —Tech. Comm. No. 4 C. I. B. C., Pt. 2, 67–76.Google Scholar
  6. Hasan, S. — 1972. Specificity and host specialization ofPuccinia chondrillina. —Ann. appl. Biol., 72, 257–263.Google Scholar
  7. Iljin, M. M. — 1930 a. A critical survey of the genusChondrilla. — Rezinotrust, Moscow, 61 pp.Google Scholar
  8. —— — 1930 b.Chondrilla: its geography, ecology and rubber content. —Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. Leningrad, 24, 147–184.Google Scholar
  9. Kozulina, O. V. &Rudakova, K. V. — 1932. The biology of the rubber mothBradyrrhoa gilveolella Tr.Trans. Rubber Guttaperch Inst., Leningrad, 6, 28–46.Google Scholar
  10. Lems, K. &Holzapfel, C. M. — 1968. Evolution in the Canary Islands. I. Phylogenetic relations in the genusEchium (Boraginaceae) as shown by trichome development. —Bot. Gaz., 129, 95–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Leonova, T. G. — 1964. Flora U.S.S.R.:Chondrilla. —Nauka, Moscow, Vol. 29, 560–586.Google Scholar
  12. Poddubnaja-Arnoldi, W. A. — 1933. Geschlechtliche und Ungeschlechtliche Fortpflanzung bei einigenChondrilla-Arten. —Zeitschr. Wiss. Biol., Abt. E. Planta 19, 46–86.Google Scholar
  13. Riedl, M. inReichinger, H. — 1967. Flora Iranica, 48/15Boraginaceae. Vol. 4.Google Scholar
  14. Sakharov, N. — 1930. Insects taking part in the formation of caoutchouc onChondrilla ambigua Fisch. —Zh. Obst. agron. Yugo-vostock, 8, 367–372.Google Scholar
  15. Wapshere, A. J. — 1971. The effect of human intervention on the distribution and abundance ofChondrilla juncea L. —Proc. Adv. Study Inst. Dynamics Numbers Popul., Oosterbeek, 1970, 469–477.Google Scholar
  16. Zwölfer, H. — 1965. Preliminary check list of phytophagous insects attacking wildCynareae (Compositae) species in Europe. —Tech. Bull. Commonw. Inst. biol. Control, 6, 81–154.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Le François 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Wapshere
    • 1
  1. 1.CSIRO Biological Control UnitMontpellierFrance

Personalised recommendations