Plant and Soil

, Volume 108, Issue 1, pp 185–190 | Cite as

Taxonomic status ofAnabaena azollae: An overview

  • J. Plazinski
  • C. Franche
  • C. -C. Liu
  • T. Lin
  • W. Shaw
  • B. E. S. Gunning
  • B. G. Rolfe
Article

Abstract

Despite the long-standing and widespread use of the symbiotic association between the aquatic fern Azolla and its cyanobacterial symbiontAnabaena azollae to augment nitrogen supplies in rice paddy soils, very little is known about taxonomic aspects of the symbiosis. The two partners normally remain associated throughout vegetative and reproductive development, limiting the opportunities for interchanges. We have used monoclonal antibodies and DNA/DNA hybridization techniques to show that the cyanobacterial partner is not uniform throughout the genus Azolla, and that substantial diversification has occurred. With these procedures it will be possible to characterize genotypes of the cyanobacterium and to monitor experiments aimed at synthesizing new combinations ofAzolla species andAnabaena azollae strains.

Key words

Anabaena azollae Azolla Cyanobacteria DNA/DNA hybridization taxonomy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arad H, Keysari A, Tel-Or E and Kobiler D 1985 A comparison between cell antigens in different isolates ofAnabaena azollae. Symbiosis 1, 195–204.Google Scholar
  2. Franche C and Cohen-Bazire G 1985 The structuralnif genes of four symbioticAnabaena azollae show a highly conserved physical arrangement. Plant Sci. 39, 125–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Franche C, Shaw W, Gunning B E S, Rolf B G and Plazinski J 1986 Genetic evidence of different Anabaena strains associated with the Azolla fern.In Proc. of the 8th Australian Nitrogen Fixation Conference. Eds. W Wallace and S E Smith, pp 93–94, Occasional Publication no. 25, Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, Sydney.Google Scholar
  4. Franche C, Gunning B E S, Rolfe B G and Plazinski J 1987 Use of heterologous hybridization in the phylogenetic studies of symbiotic Anabaena strains.In Molecular Genetics of Plant-Microbe Interactions. Eds. D P S Verma and N Brisson, pp 305–306. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  5. Franche C and Cohen-Bazire G 1987 Evolutionary divergence in thenif K, D, H genes region among nine symbioticAnabaena azollae and betweenAnabaena azollae and some free-living heterocystous cyanobacteria. Symbiosis (In press).Google Scholar
  6. Gates J E, Fisher R W, Goggin T W and Azrolan N I 1980 Antigenic differences betweenAnabaena azollae fresh from the Azolla fern leaf cavity and the free-living cyanobacteria. Arch. Microbiol. 128, 126–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Golden J W, Robinson S J and Haselkorn R 1985 Rearrangement of nitrogen fixation genes during heterocyst differentiation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena. Nature 314, 419–423.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Haselkorn R 1986 Organization of the genes for nitrogen fixation in photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 40, 525–547.Google Scholar
  9. Hennecke H, Kaluza K, Thony B, Furhmann M, Ludwig W and Stackebrandt E 1985 Concurrent evolution of nitrogenase genes and 16S rRNA inRhizobium species and other nitrogen fixing bacteria. Arch. Microbiol. 142, 342–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kobiler D, Cohen-Sharon A and Tel-Or E 1981 Recognition between the N2-fixing Anabaena and the water fern Azolla. FEBS Lett. 133, 157–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ladha J K and Watanabe I 1982 Antigenic similarity amongAnabaena azollae separated from different species of Azolla. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 109, 675–682.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lammers P J, Golden J W and Haselkorn R 1986 Identification and sequence of a gene required for a developmentally regulated DNA excision in Anabaena. Cell 44, 905–911.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Liu C-C, Chen Y, Tang L, Zheng Q, Song T, Chen M, Li Y and Lin T 1987 Studies of monoclonal antibodies againstAnabaena azollae. Acta Botanica Sinica (In press).Google Scholar
  14. Lumpkin T A and Plucknett C 1982 Azolla as a green manure: use and management in crop production. West View Press, Boulder.Google Scholar
  15. Mazur B J, Rice D and Haselkorn R 1980 Identification of blue-green algae nitrogen fixation genes by using heterologous DNA hybridization probes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 77, 186–190.Google Scholar
  16. Mellor R B, Gadd G M, Rowell P and Stewart W D P 1981 A phytohaemagglutinin from theAnabaena azollae symbiosis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 99, 1348–1353.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Mortenson L E and Thorneley R N F 1979 Structure and function of nitrogenase. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 48, 387–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Nierzwicki-Bauer S A and Haselkorn R 1985 Regulation of transcription in the Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis. J. Cell Biochem. suppl. 9 (part C): 240.Google Scholar
  19. Peters G A, Calvert H E, Kaplan D, Ito O and Toia R E 1982 The Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis: morphology, physiology and use. Isr. J. Bot. 31, 305–323.Google Scholar
  20. Rice D, Mazur B J and Haselkorn R 1982 Isolation and physical mapping of nitrogen fixation genes from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC7120. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 13157–13163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Rippka R, Deruelles J, Waterbury J B, Herdman M and Stanier R Y 1979 Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria. J. Gen. Microbiol. 111, 1–61.Google Scholar
  22. Shinozaki K and Sugiura M 1985 Genes for the large and small subunits of ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase constitute a single operon in a cyanobacteriumAnacystis nidulans 6301. Mol. Gen. Genet. 200, 27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Svenson H K 1944 The new world species of Azolla. Am. Fern J. 34, 69–84.Google Scholar
  24. Tomioka N and Sugiura M 1983 The complete nucleotide sequence of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene from a blue-green alga,Anacystis nidulans. Mol. Gen. Genet. 191: 46–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Plazinski
    • 1
  • C. Franche
    • 1
  • C. -C. Liu
    • 1
  • T. Lin
    • 1
  • W. Shaw
    • 1
  • B. E. S. Gunning
    • 1
  • B. G. Rolfe
    • 1
  1. 1.Research School of Biological SciencesAustralian National UniversityCanberra CityAustralia

Personalised recommendations