Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 371–380 | Cite as

Instantaneous back flow through peripheral clearance of medtronic hall tilting disc valve at the moment of closure

  • C. S. Lee
  • K. B. Chandran
Research Articles

Abstract

An investigation of the flow dynamics through the peripheral clearance (the gap formed between the occluder tip and the metal housing in the closed position) of a tilting disc heart valve at the moment of valve closure is presented. A Medtronic Hall valve in the mitral position of anin vitro experimental set up is employed to measure the transient pressure pulses near the entrance (ventricular side) and exit (atrial side) of the peripheral clearance at valve closure. Flow within the peripheral clearance is analyzed employing a two-dimensional quasisteady computational fluid dynamics model with the measured peak pressures specified as the boundary conditions inducing the flow. The valve is visualized from its inflow (atrial) side using a stroboscopic lighting technique to investigate the presence of cavitation bubbles within the clearance. The pressure measurements showed that a relatively large pressure drop exists between the entrance and the exit to the clearance for about 0.5 msec at the moment of valve closure. The numerical simulation resulted in relatively large magnitudes of wall shear stress and pressure reduction within the clearance due to the flow established by the large pressure drop between the entrance and the exit. Cavitation bubbles visualized within the peripheral clearance at higher loading rates for valve closure correlated with the presence of large pressure reduction within the clearance. Analysis of the results of this study indicates that the back flow through the clearance at the instant of valve closure may contribute toward injury to formed elements in blood in spite of the short duration of the flow.

Keywords

Valve closure Tilting disc valve Peripheral clearance Instantaneous back flow Computational fluid dynamic analysis Wall shear stress Pressure Cavitation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Baldwin, J.T.; Tarbell, J.M.; Deutsch, S.; Rosenberg, D.B. Mean velocities and Reynolds stresses within regurgitation jets produced by tilting disc valves. ASAIO. 37;M348-M349; 1991.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chandran, K.B. Heart valve prostheses: in vitro flow dynamics. In: Webster, J.G., ed. Encyclopedia of medical devices and instrumentation. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1988: pp. 1475–1483.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chandran, K.B. Cardiovascular Biomechanics. New York: New York University Press; 1992: pp. 84.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chandran, K.B.; Lee, C.S.; Chen, L.D. Pressure field in the vicinity of mechanical valve occluders at the instant of valve closure: correlation with cavitation initiation. J. Heart Valve Dis. 3(Suppl. I):565–576.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Graf, T.; Reul, H.; Rau, G. Cavitation potential of mechanical heart valve prostheses. Artif. Org. 14:169–174; 1991.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Graf, T.; Reul, H.; Dietz, W.; Wilmes, R.; Rau, G. Cavitation of mechanical heart valves under physiologic conditions. J Heart Valve Dis. 1:131–141; 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Horstkotte, D.; Korfer, R.; Seipel, L.; Bricks, W.; Loogen, F. Late complications in patients with Bjork-Shiley and St. Jude Medical heart valve replacement. Circulation (Suppl. II) 68:175–184; 1983.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jones, I. P.; Kightley, J.R.; Thompson, C.P.; Wilkes, N.S. FLOW3D, a computer program for the prediction of laminar and turbulent flow, and heat transfer: release 1. AERE-R 11825; 1985.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Klepetko, W. Leaflet fracture in Edwards-Duromedics bileaflet valves. J. Thoracic Cardiovasc. Surg. 97:90–97; 1989.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kuiper, G. Reflections on cavitation inception. Proc. ASME Cav. Multiphase Flow Forum, 1989; pp. 1–13.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lamson, T.C.; Rosenberg, G.; Geselowitz, D.B.; Deutsch, S.; Stinebring, D.R.; Frangos, J.A.; Tarbell, J.M. Relative blood damage in the three phases of a prosthetic heart valve flow cycle. ASAIO 39:M626-M633; 1993.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lawrie, J.W. Glycerol and the glycols. New York: The Chemical Engineering Catalog Co.; 1928.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee, C.S.; Chandran, K.B.; Chen, L.D. Cavitation dynamics of mechanical heart valve prostheses. Artif. Organs; 1994. In press.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee, C.S.; Clausen, J.D.; Chandran, K.B. Flow dynamics in the disc clearance region of a bileaflet mechanical heart valve prosthesis during the closing phase. Proc. of 3rd USA-China-Japan Conference on Biomechanics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia; 1991: pp. 137–138.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leuer, L. In vitro evaluation of drive parameters and valve selection for the total artificial heart. Annual meeting of the Canadian Council of Cardiovascular Perfusionists, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 1986.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morishita, Y.; Arikawa, K.; Yamashita, M.; Yuda, T.; Shimokawa, S. Fatal hemolysis due to unidentified causes following mitral valve replacement with bileaflet tilting disc valve prosthesis. Heart Vessels 3:100–103; 1987.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reif, T.H. A numerical analysis of the back flow between the leaflets of a St. Jude medical cardiac valve prosthesis. J. Biomech. 24:733–741; 1991.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stinebring, D.R.; Lamson, T.C.; Deutsch, S. Technique for in vitro observation of cavitation in prosthetic heart valves. Proceedings of ASME Cavitation and Multiphase Flow Forum 1991; pp. 119–124.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tiederman, W.G.; Steinle M.J.; Phillips, W.M. Two component laser velocimeter measurements downstream of heart valve prostheses in pulsatile flow. ASME J. Biomech. Eng. 108:59–64; 1986.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    White, F.M. Fluid mechanics, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.; 1986: pp. 210.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yoganathan, A.P.; Woo, Y.R.; Sung, H.W. Turbulent shear stress measurements in the vicinity of aortic valve prostheses. J. Biomech. 119:433–442; 1986.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. S. Lee
    • 2
  • K. B. Chandran
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Biomedical and Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of IowaIowa City
  2. 2.204 EB, Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of IowaIowa CityU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations