Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 9–17 | Cite as

Application of adaptive FTF/FAEST zero tracking filters to noninvasive characterization of the sound pattern caused by coronary artery stenosis before and after angioplasty

  • M. Akay
  • Y. M. Akay
  • W. Welkowitz
  • J. L. Semmlow
  • J. Kostis


This article presents a new signal processing application that can be used for acoustical detection of coronary artery disease before and after angioplasty. The adaptive Autoregressive (AR) method based on the FTF/FAEST (Fast transversal filters/Fasta posteriori error sequential techniques) is used to track acoustical behavior associated with coronary occlusions. Using the amplitude trajectory of the second pole pair of this method, 9 out of 10 angioplasty patients were correctly identified using a blind protocol without prior knowledge of whether a given recording was made before and after angioplasty. These results were obtained from signals located between 200 and 300 msec after the end of the second heart sound during the diastolic period.


Adaptive zero tracking filters Coronary artery disease Heart sounds Acoustic 



pole polynomial


forward prediction coefficient vector


backward prediction coefficient vector


forward minimum sum of error squares


forward and backward minimum sum of error squares


a posteriori forward estimation error


a priori forward estimation error


filter weight vector


Kalman gain vector


a priori Kalman gain vector


filter order


input signal


tap-inputs vector




forward prediction updating term


poles updating term


performance index


forgetting factor


likelihood variable


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Copyright information

© Pergamon Press Ltd. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Akay
    • 1
  • Y. M. Akay
    • 1
  • W. Welkowitz
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. L. Semmlow
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Kostis
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Surgery (Bioengineering)UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical SchoolNew Brunswick
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical SchoolNew Brunswick

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