Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 329–342 | Cite as

The velocity-strain relationship

Application in normal and abnormal left ventricular function
  • Chandler A. Phillips


Left-ventricular dimensions were measured during a complete cardiac cycle from one-plane cineangiograms and used to calculate the circumferential fiber velocity (VCF) and circumferential fiber strain (ε). A velocity-strain (VCF·ε) loop was then constructed for 39 patients. Characteristics of theVCF·ε loop included: peak systolicVCF(+VCF), ε at +VCFS), systolic time constant τS, absolute peak diastolicVCF (|−VCF|), ε at |−VCF| (εD), diastolic time constant τD,VCF≤|−VCF|, εD≤εS, and τD≤τS. The first two inequalities combined provided the best criterion of cardiac decompensation. Only 2 of 15 normal patients, 2 of 6 compensated volume overload patients, and 1 of 3 compensated pressure overload patients satisfied the double inequality. However, 6 of 9 decompensated volume overload patients and 5 of 6 congestive cardiomyopathy patients satisfied the double inequality. Physically, this would imply that with depressed cardiac function: +VCF≤|−VCF| due to a reduced ability of the ventricle to actively contract, εD≤εS (and τD≤τS) due to an increased viscoelastic stiffness of the ventricle. TheVCF·ε loop is independent of pressure, making it possible to acquire noninvasively.


Cardiomyopathy Cardiac Cycle Pressure Overload Good Criterion Cardiac Decompensation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Symbols


Percentage change of minor axis


Midwall circumferential fiber length


Minor axis at end-diastole


Wall thickness at end-diastole


Circumferential fiber strain


Maximum circumferential fiber strain


Diastolic circumferential fiber strain at |−VCF|


Systolic circumferential fiber strain at +VCF


Change in diastolic strain


Circumferential fiber velocity


Peak systolicVCF


Absolute value of peak diastolicVCF


Change in minor L.V. circumference


Change in L.V. wall thickness


Time constant


Diastolic time constant


Systolic time constant


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Copyright information

© Academic Press, Inc. 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chandler A. Phillips
    • 1
  1. 1.The Departments of Engineering and PhysiologyWright State UniversityDayton

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