Materials Science

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 477–484 | Cite as

Mechanism of reversible effect of hydrogen on mechanical properties of steel

  • V. I. Tkachov
Article
  • 58 Downloads

Abstract

By analyzing the experimental data on the influence of gaseous hydrogen on physicomechanical properties of steels, we consider the mechanism of reversible hydrogen embrittlement, focus our attention on the processes of surface interaction, and explain the surface-active properties of hydrogen. The low solubility, high mobility, and affinity to metals characterize hydrogen as the most efficient surface-active element with respect to metals. We propose to consider the ability of hydrogen to concentrate in certain microvolumes of metal as the main point for explanation of the mechanism of reversible hydrogen embrittlement. The actual behavior of the material is determined by hydrogen localized in defects of the structure, but its total concentration cannot characterize the degree of danger of hydrogen degradation. Depending on the deformation conditions, the interaction of a metal with hydrogen either promotes plastic flow or leads to selective fracture.

Keywords

Hydrogen Mechanical Property Structural Material Reversible Effect Total Concentration 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    V. I. Tkachev, V. I. Kholodnyi, and I. N. Levina,Workability of Steels and Alloys in a Hydrogen Medium [in Russian], Vertical', L'viv (1999).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. A. Bilby and J. Hewitt, “Hydrogen in steel — the stability of microcracks,”Acta Met.,10, No. 6, 587–600 (1962).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. N. Romaniv, V. I. Tkachev, and R. I. Kripyakevich, “Low-cyclic fatigue of 2Kh13 steel in a gaseous hydrogen,”Fiz.-Khim. Mekh. Mater.,8, No. 1, 102–104 (1972).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    N. J. Petch, “The lowering of fracture stress due to surface adsorption,”Phil. Mag.,1, No. 4, 331–337 (1956).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Horiuti and T. Toya, “Chemisorption of hydrogen,” in: M. Green (editor),Solid State Surface [Russian translation], Mir, Moscow (1972), pp. 11–103.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. S. Tetel'man, “Hydrogen embrittlement of iron alloys,” in:Fracture of Solids [in Russian], Metallurgizdat, Moscow (1967), pp. 463–499.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    V. I. Tkachev, I. I. Sidorak, and B. F. Kachmar, “Determination of the solubility of hydrogen in α-iron,”Fiz.-Khim. Mekh. Mater.,15, No. 1, 88–89 (1979).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. T. Gwathmey and R. E. Cunnigham, “The action of the crystal face in catalysis,” in: D. D. Eley, W. G. Frankenburg, and V. I. Komarewsky (editors),Advances in Catalysis and Related Subjects, Volume X, Academic Press, New York (1958).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. R. C. Westwood,The Failure of Solids in Active Environments, Research Institute for Advanced Studies (Martin Company), Baltimore, Maryland (1965).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. C. Rogers, “The aging of hydrogen charged rimmed steel,”Trans. Met. Soc. AIME,215, No. 4, 666–672 (1959).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. A. Rebinden,Physicochemical Mechanics [in Russian], Znanie, Moscow (1958).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. A. Rebinder and E. D. Shchukin, “Surface phenomena in solids in processes of their deformation and fracture,”Usp. Fiz. Nauk,108, No. 1, 3–42 (1972).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    V. I. Likhtman, E. D. Shchukin, and P. A. Rebinder,Physicochemical Mechanics of Metals [in Russian], Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow (1962).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yu. V. Goryunov, I. V. Pertsov, and B. D. Summ,The Rebinder Effect [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow (1966).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Environment-Sensitive Mechanical Behavior, Proceedings of a Conference, Gordon and Breach, New York (1966).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Smialowski,Hydrogen in Steel [in Polish], Naukowo-Techniczne Wydawnictwo, Warsaw (1961).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    B. M. W. Trapnell,Chemisorption, Butterworths, London (1955).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. D. Shchukin, “Decrease in the surface energy and variation in the mechanical properties of solids under the action of the environment,”Fiz.-Khim. Mekh. Mater.,12, No. 1, 3–20 (1976).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Galand, P. Azou, and P. Bastien, “Comportement de l'acier sous contrainte en presente d'hydrogene,”Paris: C. R. Acad. Sc., Ser. C., 27–32 (1969).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. I. Mikitishin and I. I. Vasilenko, “The influence of hydrogen on the character of the “stress-strain” curve”, in:The Influence of Working Media on the Properties of Materials [in Russian], Issue 3, Naukova Dumka, Kiev (1964), pp. 18–25.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    V. A. Teterskii, A. I. Soshko, and G. V. Karpenko, “On the influence of irradiation in gaseous media on the mechanical properties of steel,” in:The Influence of Working Media on the Properties of Materials [in Russian], Issue 3, Naukova Dumka, Kiev (1964), pp. 28–31.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Besnarg, “Influence de la haute pukete' du der sur son aptitude au chargement en protons,”Ann. Chim.,6(3), 245–283 (1961).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. S. Tetelman and W. D. Robertson, “Hydrogen embrittlement of iron and steels,”Trans. AINE,236, No. 4, 78–84 (1966).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    V. I. Tkachev, I. P. Pistun, and A. B. Kuslitskii, “Cold-work hardening as a method for an increase in hydrogen resistance of steels,”Kor. Zashch. Neftegas. Prom., No. 10, 3–6 (1976).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    V. M. Tupilko, V. I. Zaika, and M. M. Shved, “The role of hydrogen in embrittlement of reinforcing 35GS steel thermally hardened by rolled stock heating,”Fiz.-Khim. Mekh. Mater.,10, No. 4, 47–50 (1974).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Sakai, K. Asami, and H. Takeda, “Current solutions to hydrogen. Problems in steels,” in:Proceedings of the 1st International Conf., 1982, Metals Park, ASM (1982), pp. 240–248.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    F. E. Fojita, “The role of hydrogen in fracture of iron and steels,”Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met.,17, No. 4, 232–238 (1976).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. V. Vavrukh and V. B. Solov'yan, “Localization of impurities of hydrogen in metals,”Fiz.-Khim. Mekh. Mater.,21, No. 4, 26–29 (1985).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    V. E. Panin, V. A. Likhachev, and Yu. S. Grinyaev,Structural Levels of Deformation of Solids [in Russian], Novosibirsk, Nauka (1985).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    B. A. Kolachev,Hydrogen Brittleness of Metals [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1978).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hydrogen Degradation of Ferrous Alloys, Noyes, Park Ridge (1985).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hydrogen Effects on Behaviour of Materials, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference (Moran, 1989), TNS (1990).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    P. I. Yukhnovskii and V. I. Tkachev, “On the state of hydrogen in a metal,”Fiz.-Khim. Mekh. Mater.,23, No. 4, 107–108 (1987).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. M. Dobrotvorskii and Yu. I. Archakov, “Theoretical investigation of the influence of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of iron,”Fiz.-Khim. Mekh. Mater.,25, NO. 3, 3–7 (1989).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. I. Tkachov

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations