Advertisement

Potato Research

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 257–268 | Cite as

Effects of photoperiod, night temperature, and irradiance on flower production in the potato

  • A. D. Turner
  • E. E. Ewing
Article

Summary

The influence of three environmental factors on the incidence of arrested floral development (bud abortion) in different potato clones was studied. The first experiment measured flower production in growth chambers when a 12-h photoperiod was extended by 4 h dim light. The second experiment, also in growth chambers, contrasted flower production under night temperatures of 10°C and 20°C (day temperature 30°C, photoperiod 12 h). A third experiment examined bud abortion in plants grown in the greenhouse under shade cloths which reduced incoming irradiance to ca. 50% of normal. Both the longer photoperiod and warmer night temperature promoted flower production, in some of the clones tested, by reducing bud abortion. Reduced irradiance completely suppressed flower development (but not bud formation) in all clones. In all experiments, the number of flowers developing to anthesis was significantly correlated with shoot dry weight, indicating that treatments which promote shoot growth reduce the incidence of bud abortion.

Additional keywords

flower bud abortion true potato seed shading tuberization Solanum tuberosum L. 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdalla, A. A. & K. Verkerk, 1968. Growth, flowering and fruit set of the tomato at high temperature.Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 16: 71–76.Google Scholar
  2. Bodlaender, K. B. A., 1963. Influence of temperature, radiation and photoperiod on development and yield. In: The growth of the potato, Proceedings of the 10th Easter School of Agricultural Sciences, University of Nottingham, pp. 199–210.Google Scholar
  3. Boodley, J. W. & R. Sheldrake, Jr., 1973. Cornell Peat-lite mixtures for commerical plant growing. Cornell University, Information Bulletin 43.Google Scholar
  4. Calvert, A., 1969. Studies on the post-initiation development of flower buds of tomato.The Journal of Horticultural Science 44: 117–126.Google Scholar
  5. Clarke, A. E. & P. M. Lombard, 1939. Relation of length of day to flower and seed production in potato varieties.American Potato Journal 16: 236–244.Google Scholar
  6. Cooper, A. J., 1961. Observations on the seasonal trends in the growth of the leaves and fruit of glasshouse tomato plants, considered in relation to light duration and plant age.The Journal of Horticultural Science 36: 102–115.Google Scholar
  7. Cooper, A. J. & R. G. Hurd, 1968. The influence of cultural factors on arrested development of the first inflorescence of glasshouse tomatoes.The Journal of Horticultural Science 43: 243–248.Google Scholar
  8. Dinar, M. & J. Rudich, 1985. Effect of heat stress on assimilate partitioning in tomato.Annals of Botany 56: 239–248.Google Scholar
  9. East, E. M., 1908. Some essential points in potato breeding. Connecticut Experimental Station Report No. 31: 429–447.Google Scholar
  10. Edmunson, W. C., 1941. Response of several varieties of potatoes to different photoperiods.American Potato Journal 18: 100–112.Google Scholar
  11. El Ahmadi, A. B. & M. A. Stevens, 1979. Reproductive responses of heat, tolerant tomatoes to high temperatures.The Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 104: 686–691.Google Scholar
  12. Ewing, E. E., 1985. Cuttings as simplified models of the potato plant. In: P. H. Li (Ed.). Potato physiology, pp. 153–207. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Guinn, G., 1974. Abscission of cotton floral buds and bolls as influenced by factors affecting photosynthesis and respiration.Crop Science 14: 291–293.Google Scholar
  14. Hussey, G. & N. J. Stacey, 1981.In vitro propagation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).Annals of Botany 48: 787–796.Google Scholar
  15. Jessup, R. J., 1958. Potato breeding in New South Wales.The Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, March, 1958. pp. 21–26.Google Scholar
  16. Kinet, J. M., D. Hurdebise, A. Parmentier & R. Stainier, 1978. Promotion of inflorescence development by growth substance treatments to tomato plants grown in insufficient light conditions.The Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 103: 724–729.Google Scholar
  17. Kinet, J. M. & R. M. Sachs, 1984. Light and flower development. In: D. Vince-Prue, B. Thomas & K. E. Cockshull (Eds), Light and the flowering process. Academic Press, Inc., London. pp. 21–25.Google Scholar
  18. Krantz, F. A., 1939. Incidence and inheritance of pollen sterility in the potato.Journal of Agricultural Research 58: 593–601.Google Scholar
  19. Kristoffersen, T., 1963. Interactions of photoperiod and temperature in growth and development of young potato plants.Physiologia Plantarum Supplement I: 1–94.Google Scholar
  20. Krug, H. & O. Fischnich, 1962. Die photoperiodische Reaktion von Kartoffelsorten verschiedener Reifezeit.Zeitschrift für Acker- und Pflanzenbau 116: 154–166.Google Scholar
  21. Leonard, M., J. M. Kinet, M. Bodson & G. Bernier, 1983. Enhanced inflorescence development in tomato by growth substance treatments in relation to14C-assimilate distribution.Physiologia Plantarum 57: 85–89.Google Scholar
  22. Levy, A., H. D. Rabinowitch & N. Keder, 1978. Morphological and physiological characteristics affecting flower drop and fruit set of tomatoes at high temperatures.Euphytica 27: 211–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Marinus, J. & K. B. A. Bodlaender, 1975. Responses of some potato varieties to temperature.Potato Reserach 18: 189–204.Google Scholar
  24. Pallais, N., N. Fong & D. Berrios, 1985. Research on the physiology of potato sexual seed production. Paper submitted to the Planning Conference on Innovative Methods to Potato Production, CIP, Peru, February 1985.Google Scholar
  25. Patterson, C. F., 1953. A method of obtaining fruits in the potato variety Russet Burbank.American Potato Journal 30: 89–91.Google Scholar
  26. Rylski, I. & A. H. Halevy, 1974. Optimal environment for set and development of sweet pepper fruit.Acta Horticulturae 42: 55–62.Google Scholar
  27. Sadik, S., 1983. Potato production from true seed—present and future. In: W. J. Hooker (Ed.), Research for the potato for the year 2000. International Potato Center, Lima, Peru, pp. 18–25.Google Scholar
  28. Sadik, S., 1984. Flowering and TPS production.True Potato Seed Letter 5: 2–3.Google Scholar
  29. Saito, T. & H. Ito, 1967. Studies on the growth and fruiting in the tomato. IX.The Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 36: 195–205.Google Scholar
  30. Saito, T. & H. Ito, 1972. Studies on the growth and fruiting in the tomato. XIII.The Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 41: 179–184.Google Scholar
  31. Stevenson, F. J. & C. F. Clark, 1933. Artificial light as an aid in potato breeding.American Potato Journal 10: 103–107.Google Scholar
  32. Thijn, A. G., 1954. Observations on flower induction with potatoes.Euphytica 3: 28–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tsao, S. & Y. Chang, 1980. Study on potato production by true seeds.Journal of Agricultural Research in China 29: 321–328.Google Scholar
  34. Weinheimer, W. H. & G. W. Woodbury, 1966. Effects of grafting and solanum understocks on flower formation and abscission of flowers and fruits in the Russet Burbank potato.American Potato Journal 43: 453–457.Google Scholar
  35. Werner, H. O., 1934. The effect of a controlled nitrogen supply with different temperatures and photoperiods upon development of the potato plant. Nebraska Experimental Station Bulletin 75.Google Scholar
  36. Werner, H. O., 1941. Effect on berry production of varied day length during the life of two Triumph potato strains.American Potato Journal 18: 174–178.Google Scholar
  37. Werner, H. O., 1942. Relation of length of photoperiod and intensity of supplemental light to the production of flowers and berries in the greenhouse by several varieties of potatoes.Journal of Agricultural Research 64: 257–274.Google Scholar
  38. Wheeler, R. M. & T. W. Tibbitts, 1986. Growth and tuberization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under continuous light.Plant Physiology 80: 801–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. D. Turner
    • 1
  • E. E. Ewing
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Vegetable CropsCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations