Advertisement

Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 111–127 | Cite as

Factorial analysis of the cardiovascular responses to carotid sinus nerve stimulation

  • Matthew N. Levy
  • Harrison Zieske
Article

Abstract

The changes in arterial blood pressure, heart period, and respiration evoked by carotid sinus nerve (CSN) stimulation were studied in closed-chest, anesthetized dogs. Multifactorial regression equations were derived to express the various steady-state responses as functions of the parameters of stimulation. With the CSN and vagi intact, the changes in arterial pressure produced by CSN stimulation were much less pronounced than after the CSN and vagi were interrupted. When the CSN and vagi were intact, changes in stimulus duration had relatively little influence on heart period at the lower voltage levels. However, at higher voltages, increases in pulse duration produced substantial increments in heart period. TheRR interval increased progressively as the frequency of CSN stimulation was varied from 15 to 45 Hz; the magnitude of this effect varied directly with the stimulus voltage.

Keywords

Blood Pressure Respiration Arterial Pressure Pulse Duration High Voltage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anrep, G. V., Pascual, W., and Rössler, R. Respiratory variations of the heart rate. 1. The reflex mechanism of the respiratory arrhythmia.Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 1936,119, 191–216.Google Scholar
  2. Bernthal, T., Greene, W., Jr., and Revzin, A. M. Role of carotid chemoreceptors in hypoxic cardiac acceleration.Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1951,76, 121–124.Google Scholar
  3. Bilgutay, A. M., and Lillehei, C. W. Treatment of hypertension with an implantable electronic device.Journal of the American Medical Association 1965,191, 649–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Borst, C., Karemaker, J. M., Bouman, L. N., Dunning, A. J., and Schopman, F. J. G. Optimal frequency of carotid sinus nerve stimulation in treatment of angina pectoris.Cardiovascular Research 1974,8, 674–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cooley, W. W., and Lohnes, P. R.Multivariate Data Anlaysis. New York: Wiley, 1971. P. 51.Google Scholar
  6. Daly, M. deB., and Scott, M. J. An analysis of the primary cardiovascular reflex effects of stimulation of the carotid body chemoreceptors in the dog.Journal of Physiology (London) 1962,162, 555–573.Google Scholar
  7. Daly, M. deB., and Scott, M. J. The cardiovascular responses to stimulation of the carotid body chemoreceptors in the dog.Journal of Physiology (London) 1963,165, 179–197.Google Scholar
  8. Davies, O. L.Design and Analysis of Industrial Experiments New York: Hafner, 1963, 2nd ed., pp. 247–366.Google Scholar
  9. Douglas, W. W., and Ritchie, J. M. Cardiovascular reflexes produced by electrical excitation of non-medullated afferents in the vagus, carotid sinus and aortic nerves.Journal of Physiology (London) 1956,134, 167–178.Google Scholar
  10. Douglas, W. W., Ritchie, J. M., and Schaumann, W. Depressor reflexes from medullated and non-medullated fibers in the rabbit's aortic nerve.Journal of Physiology (London) 1956,132, 187–198.Google Scholar
  11. Douglas, W. W., and Schaumann, W. A study of the depressor and pressor components of the cat's carotid sinus and aortic nerves using electrical stimuli of different intensities and frequencies.Journal of Physiology (London) 1956,132, 173–186.Google Scholar
  12. Drews, J. A., Stansel, H. C., Jr., and Glenn, W. W. L. Carotid sinus nerve stimulation: Studies on the mechanism of the hypotensive response.Vascular Surgery 1956,2, 78–87.Google Scholar
  13. Eckberg, D. L., Fletcher, G. F., and Braunwald, E. Mechanism of prolongation of the R-R interval with electrical stimulation of the carotid sinus nerves in man.Circulation Research 1972,30, 131–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Epstein, S. E., Beiser, G. D., Goldstein, R. E., Redwood, D., Rosing, D. R., Glick, G., Wechsler, A. S., Stampfer, M., Cohen, L. S., Reis, R. L., Braunwald, N. S., and Braunwald, E. Treatment of angina pectoris by electrical stimulation of the carotid sinus nerves.New England Journal of Medicine 1969a,280, 971–978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Epstein, S. E., Beiser, G. D., Goldstein, R. E., Stampfer, M., Wechsler, A. S., Glick, G., and Braunwald, E. Circulatory effects of electrical stimulation of the carotid sinus nerves in man.Circulation 1969b,40, 269–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gabriel, M., and Seller, H. Excitation of expiratory neurones adjacent to the nucleus ambiguus by carotid sinus baroreceptor and trigeminal afferents.Pflügers Archiv für die gesamte Physiologie 1969,313, 1–10.Google Scholar
  17. Jonzon, A., Oberg, P. A., Sedin, G., and Sjostrand, U. Studies of blood pressure regulation in the unanaesthetized dog. I. The effects of constant frequency stimulation of the carotid sinus nerves.Pflügers Archiv für die gesamte Physiologie 1973,340, 211–228.Google Scholar
  18. Kardon, M. B., Peterson, D. F., and Bishop, V. S. Reflex bradycardia due to aortic nerve stimulation in the rabbit.American Journal of Physiology 1973,225, 7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kendrick, J. E., and Matson, G. L. Depressor and pressor afferent fibers in the carotid sinus nerve of the dog.Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1971,138, 175–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kendrick, J. E., and Matson, G. L. A comparison of the cardiovascular responses to stimulation of the aortic and carotid sinus nerves of the dog.Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1973,144, 404–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kiwull, P. Zur Wirking der Pressoreflexe des Karotissinus auf die Atmung.Zeitschrift für Kreislaufforschung 1972,61, 587–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Koepchen, H. P., and Thurau, K. Über die Entstehungsbedingungen der atemsynchronen Schwankungen des Vagustonus (Respiratorische Arrhythmie).Pflügers Archiv für die gesamte Physiologie 1959,269, 10–30.Google Scholar
  23. Levy, M. N., DeGeest, H., and Zieske, H. Effects of respiratory center activity on the heart.Circulation Research 1966,18, 67–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Neil, E., Redwood, C. R. M., and Schweitzer, A. Blood pressure responses to electrical stimulation of the carotid sinus nerve in dogs and rabbits.Journal of Physiology (London) 1949,109, 281–287.Google Scholar
  25. Schmidt, E. M. Blood pressure response to aortic nerve stimulation in swine.American Journal of Physiology 1968,215, 1488–1492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Schneyer, K. Der Pressorezeptorische Herzreflex.Zeitschrift für Kreislaufforschung 1935,27, 217–226.Google Scholar
  27. Schwartz, S. I., Griffith L. S. C., Neistadt, A., and Hagfors, N. Chronic carotid sinus nerve stimulation in the treatment of essential hypertension.American Journal of Surgery 1967,114, 5–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Testerman, R. L., and Schwartz, S. I. Electrical stimulation of the rabbit's aortic nerve and the dog's carotid sinus nerve: A parameter study.Nervous System and Electric Currents. New York: Plenum Press, 1971. Vol. 2, pp. 101–106.Google Scholar
  29. Vatner, S. F., Franklin, D., and Braunwald, E. Effects of anesthesia and sleep on circulatory response to carotid sinus nerve stimulation.American Journal of Physiology 1971,220, 1249–1255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Vatner, S. F., Franklin, D., Van Citters, R. L., and Braunwald, E. Effects of carotid sinus nerve stimulation on the coronary circulation of the conscious dog.Circulation Research 1970a,27, 11–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Vatner, S. F., Franklin, D., Van Citters, R. L., and Braunwald, E. Effects of carotid sinus nerve stimulation on blood flow distribution in conscious dogs at rest and during exercise.Circulation Research 1970b,27, 495–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Vatner, S. F., Higgins, C. B., Franklin, D., and Braunwald, E. Extent of carotid sinus regulation of the myocardial contractile state in conscious dogs.Journal of Clinical Investigation 1972,51, 995–1008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Wagner, J., Korsukewitz, J., Meyer, W., Dittberner, K. H., Zerbst, E., and Schaede, A. Carotissinusnerven-Stimulation.Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 1973,98, 37–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang, S. C., and Borison, H. L. An analysis of the carotid sinus cardiovascular reflex mechanism.American Journal of Physiology 1947,150, 712–721.Google Scholar
  35. Winder, C. V. Pressoreceptor reflexes from the carotid sinus.American Journal of Physiology 1937,118, 379–388.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Academic Press, Inc 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew N. Levy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Harrison Zieske
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Investigative MedicineMt. Sinai Hospital of ClevelandCleveland
  2. 2.Case Western Reserve UniversityCleveland

Personalised recommendations