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Closed-loop control in prosthetic systems: Historical perspective

  • Sensory Neural Prostheses
  • Published:
Annals of Biomedical Engineering Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The control of artificial limbs and other restorative systems is discussed in terms of closed-loop control and sensory feedback. Feedback modalities are classified in three categories:

  1. (1)

    Supplemental Sensory Feedback

  2. (2)

    Artificial Reflexes

  3. (3)

    Control Interface Feedback.

Historical attempts to provide sensory feedback in prostheses are discussed and put in the context of more modern efforts in this area.

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This work was supported by the Rehabilitation Engineering R & D Service of the U.S. Veterans Administration.

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Childress, D.S. Closed-loop control in prosthetic systems: Historical perspective. Ann Biomed Eng 8, 293–303 (1980).

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