Journal of Family and Economic Issues

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 23–36 | Cite as

The effect of income on fertility among Canadian women

  • Vijaya Krishnan
Article

Abstract

This study compares the fertility of three generations of immigrant women in Canada and examines whether the same set of predictors accounts for differential fertility among the three groups. The analysis of current family size of the three generations and the two age groups, 18–34 and 35–49, of currently married or cohabiting women reveals considerable variation in the effects of sociodemographic and economic variables on fertility. These variations suggest that education and religiosity are more related to the fertility of the first-generation women, religiosity is more related to the fertility of the second-generation women, and religious preference, religiosity, and expected income are more related to the fertility of the third-generation women. Whereas expected income exerts consistently significant effects on the fertility of all the three generations of younger cohorts, relative income affects the fertility only of first-generation women of younger cohorts.

Key words

differential fertility expected income immigrant generation relative income 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bean, F. D. (1973). Components of income and expected family size among Mexican Americans.Social Science Quarterly, 54, 103–116.Google Scholar
  2. Bean, F. D., & Wood, C. H. (1974). Ethnic variations in the relationship between income and fertility.Demography, 11, 629–640.Google Scholar
  3. Becker, G. S. (1965). A theory of the allocation of time.Economic Journal 75, 493–517.Google Scholar
  4. Becker, G. S. (1992). Fertility and the economy.Journal of Population Economics, 5, 185–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blau, D. M., & Robins, P. K. (1988). Child care-costs and family labour supply.Review of Economics and Statistics, 70, 374–381.Google Scholar
  6. Blishen, B. R., & McRoberts, H. A. (1976). A revised socioeconomic index for occupations in Canada.Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 13, 71–79.Google Scholar
  7. Davis, W. L., Olson, K. W., & Warner, L. (1993). An economic analysis of teenage fertility: Some evidence from Oklahoma.American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 52, 85–99.Google Scholar
  8. Easterlin, R. A. (1969). Towards a socioeconomic theory of fertility: A survey of recent research on economic factors in American fertility. In S. J. Behrman, L. Corsa, Jr., & R. Freedman (Eds.),Fertility and family planning: A world view (pp. 127–156). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  9. Freedman, D. (1963). The relation of economic status to fertility.American Economic Review, 53, 414–426.Google Scholar
  10. Freedman, D. S., & Thornton, A. (1982). Income and fertility: The elusive relationship.Demography, 19, 65–78.Google Scholar
  11. Greenstein, T. N. (1986). Social-psychological factors in perinatal labour-force participation.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 565–571.Google Scholar
  12. Grindstaff, C. F. (1975). The baby bust: Changes in fertility in Canada.Canadian Studies in Population, 2, 15–22.Google Scholar
  13. Henripin, J. (1972).Trends and factors of fertility in Canada. (1961 Cansus Monograph). Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  14. Hill, R., & Klein, D. M. (1973). Relative economic status and the American fertility swing: Introduction. In E. B. Sheldon (Ed.),Family economic behaviour (pp. 167–169). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.Google Scholar
  15. Krishnan, V. (1986). Homeownership: Its impact on fertility (Research Discussion Paper No. 51), Edmonton, Canada: Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory.Google Scholar
  16. Krishnan, V. (1988). Occupational status, earnings, and fertility expectations: Development and estimation of a causal model.De Economist, 136, 358–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Krishnan, V., & Krotki, K. J. (1992). Immigrant fertility: An examination of social characteristics and assimilation.Sociological Focus, 25, 27–38.Google Scholar
  18. Leibowitz, A., Waite, L. J., & Witsberger, C. (1988). Child care for preschoolers: Differences by child's age.Demography, 25, 205–220.Google Scholar
  19. McCarthy, J. (1979). Religious commitment, affiliation, and marriage dissolution. In R. Wuthnow (Ed.),The religious dimension (pp. 179–197). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  20. McDaniel, S. A. (1984). Family size expectations among selected Edmonton women: Three explanatory frameworks compared.Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 21, 75–91.Google Scholar
  21. Michael, R. T. (1973). Education and the derived demand for children.Journal of Political Economy, 81(2, Part 2), S128-S164.Google Scholar
  22. Namboodiri, N. K. (1970). On the relation between economic status and family status preferences when status differentials in contraceptive instrumentalities are eliminated.Population Studies, 24, 233–239.Google Scholar
  23. Neuman, S., & Ziderman, A. (1986). How does fertility relate to religiosity: Survey evidence from Israel.Sociology and Social Research, 70, 178–180.Google Scholar
  24. Notestein, F. W. (1953). The economics of population and food supplies.Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference of Agricultural Economists (pp. 15–31). London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. O'Malley-Borg, M. (1989). The income-fertility relationship: Effect of the net price of a child.Demography, 26, 301–310.Google Scholar
  26. Reed, F. W., Udry, J. R., & Rupport, M. (1975). Relative income and fertility: The analysis of individuals' fertility in a biracial sample.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 37, 799–805.Google Scholar
  27. Turchi, B. A. (1975).The demand for children: The economics of fertility in the United States. Cambridge, MA.: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  28. Willis, R. J. (1974). Economic theory of fertility behaviour. In T. W. Schultz (Ed.),Economics of the family (pp. 25–75), Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vijaya Krishnan
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Arts and EducationOkanagan University CollegeKelownaCanada

Personalised recommendations