Early Childhood Education Journal

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 3–8 | Cite as

Reciprocity between infants and cargivers during the first year of life

  • Rick Caulfield


Infants interact reciprocally with their caregivers from the moment of birth. The actions of one affect the other in a manner that resembles an intricate dance. The article proposes a sociocultural model of reciprocity that focuses on the interdependent relationship between infants and their caregivers. Relevant variables include the age, sex, developmental history, and behavioral style of the infant and the caregiver's knowledge of infants' development, level of experience and education, disciplinary style, and temperament. Further, the influence of families and cultural expectations on caregiving practices are discussed within the framework of the model. After a review of the literature, selected activities are suggested to promote infants' interaction with their social world.

Key Words

caregiver culture family parentese reciprocity sociocultural model 


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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rick Caulfield
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human ResourcesUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonolulu

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