Child Psychiatry and Human Development

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 215–230 | Cite as

Predictors of nurturant parenting in teen mothers living in three generational families

  • Daphna Oyserman
  • Norma Radin
  • Eli Saltz


Direct and indirect effects of grandparents on maternal nurturance in teen mothers (TM) living in three-generational families were explored with path analytic techniques in a sample of 107 working-class families. Perceived support from the teen's mother, grandparents' nurturance toward the baby, and the presence of the grandfather as a father figure in the home were hypothesized as increasing TM nurturance. TM nurturance was found to be positively predicted by grandparent nurturance and negatively predicted by TM perceived support from her mother. The strongest predictor of TM nurturance was grandfather nurturance toward the baby.

Key Words

teen mothers nurturant parenting 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baldwin W, Cain V: The children of teenage parents.Fam. Planning Persp., 12: 34–43, 1980.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brooks-Gunn J, Furstenberg F F: Antecedents and consequences of parenting: The case of adolescent motherhood, In A. Fogel & G.F. Melson (Eds.),Origins of nurturance, 233–258. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1986.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Furstenberg F F Jr, Brooks-Gunn J, Morgan J:Adolescent mothers in later life. NY: Cambridge University Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hayes D C (Ed.):Risking the future: Adolescent sexuality, pregnancy and childbearing. Vol. 1 Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Phipps-Yonas S: Teenage pregnancy & motherhood: A review of the literature.Am. J. of Orthopsych. 50: 403–431, 1980.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Coll C T, Hoffman J, Oh W: The social ecology of early parenting of Caucasian adolescent mothers.Child Dev. 58: 955–963, 1987.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Field T: Early development of the preterm offspring of teenage mothers. In K.G. Scott, T. Field, & E.G. Robertson (Eds.),Teenage parents and their offspring, 145–175, NY: Grune & Stratton, 1981.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sandler H, Vietze P, O'Connor S: Obstetrical and neonatal outcomes following intervention with pregnant teenagers. In K. Scott, T. Field, & E. Robertson (Eds.),Teenage parents and their offspring, 249–264. NY: Grune and Stratton, 1981.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Elster AB, McAnarney ER, Lamb ME: Parental behaviors of adolescent mothers.Pediatrics 71: 494–503, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jones FA, Green V, Krauss DR: Maternal responsiveness of principarous mothers during the post partum period: Age differences.Pediatrics 65: 579–584, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miller B, Moore K: Adolescent sexual behavior: Pregnancy, parenting and research through the 1980's.J. of Marriage and Fam. 52: 1025–1046, 1980.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Crockenberg S: Infant irritability, responsiveness, and social support influences in the security of infant-mother attachment.Child Dev. 52: 857–865, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maccoby E:Social development. NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mercer RT:First time motherhood: Experiences from teens to forties. NY: Springer Publishing Co, 1986.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Belsky J, Lerner RM, Spanier GB:The child in the family. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1984.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hoffman L W: Work, family, and the child. In M.S. Pollak & R.O. Perloff (Eds.),Psychology and work: Productivity, change, and employment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 173–220, 1986.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Honig A S: Recent infancy research. In N.B. Weissbound & J. Musick (Eds.),Infants: Their social environments. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1981.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Malatesta C Z, Culver C, Tesman J R, Shepard B: The development of emotion expression during the first two years of life.Monographs of Soc. for Res. in Child Dev., Serial No. 219 54 (1–2): 1989.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Slaughter D: Early intervention and its effects on maternal and child development.Monographs of Soc. for Res. in Child Dev., Serial No. 202 48 (14): 1983.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Franklin D L: The impact of early childbearing on developmental outcomes: The case of black adolescent parenting.Fam. Rel. 37: 268–274, 1988.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kamerman S B: Young, poor, and a mother alone: Problems and possible solutions. In H. McAdoo & T.M. Parham (Eds.),Services to young families, programs, and policy recommendations, 1–38. Washington, DC: American Public Welfare Association, 1985.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nath P S, Borkowski J G, Whitman T L, Schellenbach C J: Understanding adolescent parenting.Fam. Rel. 40: 411–420, 1991.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Richardson R A, Barbour N B, Bubenzer D L: Bittersweet connections.Fam. Rel. 40: 430–434, 1991.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Danzinger S K, Radin N: Absent does not equal unvalued.J. of Marriage & Fam. 52: 636–642, 1990.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hardy J B, Duggan A K, Masnyk K, Pearson C: Fathers of children born to young urban mothers.Perspectives 21: 159–163, 1989.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vecchiolla F J, Maza PZ:Pregnant and parenting adolescents Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America, 1989.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Newcomb M D: Social support and personal characteristics.J. of Soc. and Clinical Psych., 9: 54–68, 1990.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Apfel N H, Seitz V: Four models of adolescent mother-grandmother relationships in African American inner-city families.Fam. Rel. 40: 421–429, 1991.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kornhaber A, Woodward K:Grandparents—grandchildren, the vital connection. N. Y.: Anchor Press—Doubleday, 1981.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Parke R D, Stearns P M: Fathers and childbearing. In G. H. Elder Jr. J. Modell, & R.D. Parke (Eds.),Children in Time and Place. NY: Cambridge U. Press, in press.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Oyserman D, Radin N, Benn R: Dynamics in a three generational family: Teen, grandparents, and babies.Dev. Psych., 29: 564–572, 1993.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tinsley B J, Parke R D: Grandparents as interactive and social support agents for families with young infants.The International J. of Aging and Human Dev., 25: 259–278, 1987.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bandura A:Social foundations of thought and actions: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1986.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cochran M, Brassard J A: Child development and personal social networks.Child Dev., 50: 601–616, 1979.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Entwisle D R, Doering S: The emergent father role.Sex Roles 18: 119–141, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lam M: The changing role of fathers. In M.E. Lamb (Ed.)The father's role: Applied perspectives 3–27. NY: Wiley & Sons, 1986.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ketterlinus R D, Lamb M E, Nitz K: Developmental and ecological sources of stress among adolescent parents.Fam. Rel. 40: 435–441, 1991.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ainsfeld E, Lepper E: Early contact, social support, and mother-infant bonding.Pediatrics 72: 79–83, 1983.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Crnic K A, Greenberg M T, Ragozin A S, Robinson N M, Basham R B: Effect of stress & social support on mothers & premature & full-term infants.Child Dev. 54: 209–217, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fiering C, Fox N A, Jaskir J, Lewis M: The relation between social support, infant risk status and mother-infant interaction.Dev. Psych. 23: 400–405, 1987.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Belsky J: Parental and nonparental care and children's socioemotional development: A decade in review.J. of Marriage and Fam. 52: 885–903, 1990.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lepore S J, Evans G W, Schneider M L: Dynamic role of social support in the link between chronic stress and psychological distress.J. of Pers. and Soc. Psych. 61: 899–909, 1991.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Moos R H, Fenn C B, Billings A G: Life stressors and social resources.Social Science and Medicine 27: 999–1002, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Franklin D L: Black adolescent pregnancy.Child and Youth Serv. 9: 15–39, 1987.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kivett V A: Centrality of grandfather role among older rural Black and White men.J. of Gerontology 46: 250–258, 1991.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Radin N, Oyserman D, Benn R: The Influence of Grandfathers on the Young Children of Teen Mothers. In P. K. Smith (Ed.),The Psychology of Grandparenthood: An International Perspective. UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 85–99, 1991.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cherlin A J, Furstenberg F F Jr.:The new American grandparent. NY: Basic Books, 1986.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Phares V: Where's poppa?Amer. Psych. 47: 656–664, 1992.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Radin N, Harold-Goldsmith R: The involvement of selected unemployed and employed men with their children.Child Dev. 60: 454–459, 1989.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tomlin A M, Passman R H: Grandmothers' responsibility in raising two-year olds facilitates their grandchildren's adaptive behavior.Psych. and Aging 4: 119–121, 1989.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Epstein A S, Radin N: Motivational components related to father behavior and cognitive functioning.Child Dev. 46: 831–839, 1975.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Radin N: Primary caregiving & role-sharing fathers. In M.E. Lamb (Ed.),Nontraditional families: Parenting and child development pp 173–204. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates, 1982.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Harold-Goldsmith R, Radin N, Eccles J S: Objective and subjective reality.Fam. Pers. 22: 309–325, 1988.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Williams E, Radin N, Allegro T: Sex-role attitudes of adolescents reared primarily by their fathers: An 11-year follow-up.Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1992.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Williams E, Radin N: Predictors of adolescent achievement and expectations.Amer. J. of Orthopsych., in press.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Eyberg S M, Matarazzo R G: Training parents as therapists.J. of Clinical Psych. 36: 492–499, 1980.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Robinson E A, Eyberg S: The dyadic parent-child interaction coding system.J. of Cons. and Clinical Psych. 49: 245–250, 1981.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Radin N: Father-child interaction & the intellectual functioning of four-year old boys.Dev. Psych. 6: 353–351, 1972.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Jordan B J, Radin N, Epstein A: Paternal behavior and intellectual functioning in preschoolers.Dev. Psych. 11: 407–408, 1975.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Radin N: Maternal warmth, achievement motivation and cognitive functioning in lower class preschool children.Child Dev. 42: 1560–1565, 1971.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Radin N: The role of the father in cognitive, academic, and intellectual development. In M.D. Lamb (Ed.),The role of the father in child development, 2nd Edition. NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1981.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cartwright D S A rapid non-parametric estimate of multi-judge reliability.Psychometrika 21: 17–29, 1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Crnic K A, Greenberg MT:Inventory of parent experiences: Manual. Unpublished document from the University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 1983.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hollingshead A B:Four-factor index of social status. Unpublished manuscript. Available from the author, Department of Sociology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 1975.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Joreskog K G, Sorbom D:Lisrel 7: A Guide to the Program and Applications, 2nd Ed., Chicago: SPSS Inc, 1988.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chase-Lansdale P L, Brooks-Gunn J, Paikoff R L: Research and programs for adolescent mothers.Fam. Rel. 40: 396–403, 1991.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Shapiro J R: Determinants of parenting competence among adolescent mothers. Unpublished dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1991.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Csikszentmihalyi M, Larsen R:Being adolescent: Conflict and growth in the adolescent years. NY: Basic 1984.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Erikson E:Identity, youth and crisis. NY: W. W. Norton, 1986.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daphna Oyserman
    • 1
  • Norma Radin
    • 2
  • Eli Saltz
    • 1
  1. 1.Merrill-Palmer InstituteWayne State UniversityDetroit
  2. 2.School of Social WorkUniversity of MichiganAnn Arbor

Personalised recommendations