Pediatric Surgery International

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 41–44 | Cite as

A study of warm testicular ischaemia and paternity in rats

  • T. M. Tsang
  • A. Bianchi
  • P. M. R. Carneiro
  • Y. F. Chan
  • J. McLean
Original Articles


The effect of testicular ischaemia on fertility as assessed by paternity rate was studied in seven groups of male Sprague-Dawley pubertal rats. Transient unilateral occlusion of the testicular artery and venous outflow was performed for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min using non-crushing microvascular clamps in groups 1–4 (n = 6). Group 5 (n = 12, Fowler-Stephens) had division of both the testicular artery and vein, whereas group 6 (n = 12, Refluo) had division of the testicular artery only. Group 7 (n = 6) consisted of controls upon whom a sham operation was performed. Testicular biopsy 6 weeks after transient testicular ischaemia of 30, 60, and 90 min showed tubular atrophy in 20%–33% of the testes. Ischaemia of 120 min led to tubular atrophy in 84% of testes. Division of only the testicular artery caused tubular atrophy in 58% of testes. Division of both testicular artery and venous outflow was associated with total tubular destruction and necrosis in 78% of testes and 22% had variable tubular atrophy. A paternity rate of 50%–80% was noted in groups 1–4 following transient unilateral testicular ischaemia and contralateral vasectomy. This compared well with the expected 75% paternity rate for a control rat population. Chronic ischaemia (group 5) together with testicular venous interruption was associated with observably lower fertility and a paternity rate of 18%. However, when venous outflow was preserved (group 6), chronic ischaemia after testicular artery division did not affect the paternity rate (50%) significantly.

Key words

Testicular ischaemia Tubular atrophy Paternity Rat 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bergh A (1988) Morphologic changes induced by short term ischaemia in rat testis. J Androl 9: 15–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Domini R, Lima M (1989) L'autotrapianto microvascolare “refluo” del testicolo: una nuova soluzione tecnica. Rass It Chir Pediatr 31: 213–223Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Festing MFW (1976) The UFAW handbook on the care and management of laboratory animals, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York pp 57–73Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fowler Stephens (1959) Role of testicular vascular anatomy in the salvage of high undescended testis. Aust N Z J Surg 29: 92–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frey P, Bianchi A (1989) Microvascular autotransplantation of intra-abdominal testes. Prog Pediatr Surg 23: 115–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Harrison RG (1949) The distribution of the vasal and cremasteric arteries to the testis and their functional importance. J Ana 83: 267–282Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Knobil E, Neill JD (1988) The physiology of reproduction. Raven Press, New York, pp 1600–1738Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lima M, Gentile C, Ruggeri G, Romeo C, Paico Vilchez E, Sindona P, Turiaco N, Domini R (1989) Autotrapianto testicolare sperimentale: premessa all'autotrapianto testicolare “refluo” in eta pediatrica. Rass It Chir Pediatr 31: 243–246Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lui RC, LaRegina MC, Herbold DR, Johnson FE (1988) Tolerance of rat testis to graded periods of total circulatory isolation. J Surg Oncol 39: 264–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Oettle AG, Harrison RG (1942) The histological changes produced in the rat testis by temporary and permanent occlusion of the testicular artery. J Pathol Bacteriol 64: 273–297Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ortolano V, Nasrallah PF (1986) Spermatic vessel ligation (Fowler-Stephens manoeuvre): experimental results with regard to fertility. J Urol 136: 211–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pascual JA, Villanueva-Meyer J, Salido E, Ehrlich RM, Mena I, Rajfer J (1989) Recovery of testicular blood flow following ligation of testicular vessels. J Urol 142: 549–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Romero-Maroto J, Verdu-Tartajo F, Garcia-Gonzales R, Gonzales-Gancedo P, Cacicedo L (1986) Functional value of collateral testicular vascularization: an experiment study. Br J Urol 58: 553–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Steinberger E, Tjioe DY (1969) Spermatogenesis in rat testes after experimental ischaemia. Fertil Steril 20: 639–649PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. M. Tsang
    • 1
  • A. Bianchi
    • 1
  • P. M. R. Carneiro
    • 1
  • Y. F. Chan
    • 2
  • J. McLean
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Neonatal and Paediatric SurgeryRoyal Manchester Children's HospitalPendleburyUK
  2. 2.Department of PathologyRoyal Liverpool Children's HospitalAlder HeyUK
  3. 3.Department of Cell and Structural BiologyUniversity of ManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations