Fire Technology

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 118–132 | Cite as

Fires of insulations on tank exteriors

  • Ashok T. Modak
  • L. Orloff
Article

Abstract

This paper presents a method for calculating radiative heat transfer to an adjacent tank from fire involving insulation on tank exteriors. An approximate method for calculating the radiative flux from an ignition source is also provided. The results are generalized to allow convenient estimates of safe separations for a range of tank sizes, fire intensities, and critical ignition fluxes. Wind effects are not considered in the present study.

Keywords

Heat Transfer Civil Engineer Radiative Heat Radiative Flux Approximate Method 

Nomenclature

A

bounding surface area of tank fire, orA=(D+1)2+H2, or area of ignition source fire, m2

B

(D-1)2+H2

D

nondimensional distance from tank center

d

distance, m

F

view factor

H

nondimensional height of tank

h

tank height, m

k

gray flame absorption-emission coefficient of tank fire, m−1

l

average mean beam length, m

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burning rate per unit area, g/(m2·s)

N

radiance, kW/(m2·sr)

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radiative flux, kW/m2

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power output per unit area of tank fire, kW/m2

T

temperature, °K

t

mean thickness of flames in a tank fire, m

V

flame volume in a tank fire, m3

Greek Symbols

ΔHc

heat of combustion of fuel in the source fire, kJ/g

s

surface emissivity of polyurethane

σ

Stefan-Boltzmann constant 56.7×10−12 kW/(m2·K4)

χ

radiative fraction (≃0.4)

Subscripts

1

tank fire

2

source fire

s

polyurethane surface, or source fire

Superscripts

·

per unit time, s−1

per unit area, m−2

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Copyright information

© The National Fire Protection Association 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashok T. Modak
  • L. Orloff

There are no affiliations available

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