Effects of the combined treatment of cadmium chloride and X-rays on 8-day mouse embryos in vitro
- 19 Downloads
The combined action of cadmium and X-rays was examined on 8-day mouse embryos using a whole embryo culture system. B6C3F1 mouse embryos were explanted onto the headfold stage and cultured for 40 hrs. To examine the dose-effect relationships of the single treatments, the embryos were exposed to 1.2−2.2 μM cadmium or to 0.82−2.64 Gy of X-rays at 1 hr. after the explantation. In combined treatments, 1.58 μM of cadmium was applied at 1 hr. and X-rays of 0.82 or 1.24 Gy was applied at 1.5 hr. The end-points measured were the yolk sac diameter, crown-rump and head lengths, somite number, protein contents of yolk sac and embryo, and formation of the neural tube defect.
Cadmium-induced neural tube defect increased as a function of dose in a highly curvilinear manner. The remaining end-points affected by the single treatments were also indicative to be curvilinear. The combined action of cadmium and X-rays was found to exert an additive effect on the inhibition of embryonic growth and a synergistic effect on the teratogenicity. The form of the dose-effect curves of the single agents was suggested to be responsible for teratogenic synergism. Other possibilities of interaction remain to be resolved.
Key WordsCadmium chloride X-irradiation Combined action Mouse Whole embryo culture
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1).Bernard, A. and Lauwerys, R.:Effects of cadmium exposure in humans, In:Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 80, Cadmium. pp. 135–177, 1986, Foulkes, E.C., Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- 3).Unscear, Annex L.:Biological effects of radiation in combination with other physical, chemical or biological agents, In:Ionizing Radiation: Sources and Biological Effects. pp. 727–773, 1982, United Nations Pub., New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 6).Reddy, T. P. and Vaidyanath, K.: Synergistic interaction of gamma rays and some metallic salts in the induction of chlorophyll mutations in rice.Mutat. Res. 52: 361–365, 1978Google Scholar
- 9).Michel, C. and Balla, I.: Interaction between radiation and cadmium or mercury in mouse embryos during organogenesis.Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 51: 1007–1019, 1987Google Scholar
- 10).Webb, M.:Role of metallothionein in cadmium metabolism, In:Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 80, Cadmium. pp. 281–337, 1986, Foulkes, E.C., Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- 16).Finney, D. J.:Probit Analysis, 3rd. ed., 1971, Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 17).Ishizu, S., Minami, M., Suzuki, A., Yamada, M., Sato, M. and Yamamura, K.: An experimental study on teratogenic effect of cadmium.Ind. Health 11: 127–139, 1973Google Scholar
- 18).Barr, M.: The teratogenicity of cadmium chloride in two stocks of Wistar rats.Teratology 7: 237–242, 1973Google Scholar
- 21).Rugh, R.:The Mouse. Its Reproduction and Development. Burgess Pub. Comp., Minneapolis, 1968Google Scholar
- 22).Murakami, U. and Kameyama, Y.: Effects of low-dose x-radiation on the mouse embryo.Am. J. Dis. Child. 96: 272–277, 1958Google Scholar
- 23).Unscear, Annex C.:Biological effects of pre-natal irradiation, In:Genetic and Somatic Effects of Ionizing Radiation. pp. 263–366, 1986, United Nations Pub., New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 24).Keino, H., Watanabe, K., Totsuka, T. and Sato, H: Relationship between cadmium concentration in maternal blood and the rate of congenital anomalies in ICR-JCL mice.Med. Biol. 90: 201–205, 1975Google Scholar
- 25).Neubert, D., Bochert, G., Platzek, T., Chahoud, I., Fisher, B. and Meister, R.: Dose-response relationships in prenatal toxicity.Cong. Anom. 27: 275–302, 1987Google Scholar
- 29).Müller, W.-U. and Streffer, C.: Risk to preimplantation mouse embryos of combinations of heavy metals and radiation.Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 51: 997–1006, 1987Google Scholar