Oral Radiology

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 47–53 | Cite as

Effects of the combined treatment of cadmium chloride and X-rays on 8-day mouse embryos in vitro

  • Kiyohito Nakashima
  • Akitoshi Kawamata
  • Yoshishige Fujiki
Original Articles


The combined action of cadmium and X-rays was examined on 8-day mouse embryos using a whole embryo culture system. B6C3F1 mouse embryos were explanted onto the headfold stage and cultured for 40 hrs. To examine the dose-effect relationships of the single treatments, the embryos were exposed to 1.2−2.2 μM cadmium or to 0.82−2.64 Gy of X-rays at 1 hr. after the explantation. In combined treatments, 1.58 μM of cadmium was applied at 1 hr. and X-rays of 0.82 or 1.24 Gy was applied at 1.5 hr. The end-points measured were the yolk sac diameter, crown-rump and head lengths, somite number, protein contents of yolk sac and embryo, and formation of the neural tube defect.

Cadmium-induced neural tube defect increased as a function of dose in a highly curvilinear manner. The remaining end-points affected by the single treatments were also indicative to be curvilinear. The combined action of cadmium and X-rays was found to exert an additive effect on the inhibition of embryonic growth and a synergistic effect on the teratogenicity. The form of the dose-effect curves of the single agents was suggested to be responsible for teratogenic synergism. Other possibilities of interaction remain to be resolved.

Key Words

Cadmium chloride X-irradiation Combined action Mouse Whole embryo culture 


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Dental Radiology 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kiyohito Nakashima
    • 1
  • Akitoshi Kawamata
    • 1
  • Yoshishige Fujiki
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Oral RadiologyAsahi University School of DentistryGifuJapan

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