Ecological Research

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 305–318 | Cite as

Seasonal growth and biomass ofTrapa japonica Flerov in Ojaga-Ike Pond, Chiba, Japan

  • Hidenobu Kunii


In order to determine the seasonal growth and biomass ofTrapa japonica Flerov, field observations were carried out at Ojaga-ike Pond, Chiba, Japan, during 1979 and 1980. In spring, the plant showed exponential growth (c. 0.080 g g−1 day−1) and shoot elongation was as rapid as 10 cm day−1. The plant attained its maximum biomass (380.5±35.1 g m−2) in late August, and about 50% of this was concentrated in the topmost 30-cm stratum (645.7±33.1 g m−3); maximum total stem length exceeded 6m. The plant produced large (500–800 mg per fruit), but small numbers of nut-like fruit (maximum, 5 fruits per rosette). Defoliation occurred almost linearly with time at a rate of 30.6 leaves m−2 day−1; annual net leaf production was estimated to be about twice as large as the seasonal maximum leaf biomass. While the number of leaves per rosette showed moderate seasonal change, rosette density, rosette area and leaf dry weight changed considerably during the year. From the negative log-log correlation between mean total leaf dry weight per rosette and rosette density, density-dependent rosette growth was assumed. The cause of the wide spread of this species in aquatic habitats is briefly discussed in terms of its seed size and morphology.

Key words

Aquatic plant Biomass Growth Life cycle Trapa japonica 


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Copyright information

© Ecological Society of Japan 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hidenobu Kunii
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceShimane UniversityMatsueJapan

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