Advertisement

Ecological Research

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 247–267 | Cite as

Insects and plants in the pollination ecology of the boreal zone

  • P. G. Kevan
  • E. A. Tikhmenev
  • M. Usui
Review

Abstract

Pollination systems in the boreal zone range from generalist to specialist, both entomologically and botanically. The relative importance of wind pollination, insect pollination, sexual separation between and within plants, and between flowers, hermaphroditism of flowers, and various breeding systems are related to plant growth form and habitat. The diversity and specializations of anthophilous insects parallel those in other biogeographic zones, but seem less developed. We suggest that this reflects the combined effects of evolutionary youth, severity of climate, restriction of symbiont ranges within those of their hosts, and the naturally frequent perturbations by fire or insect outbreaks in the zone, requiring faunal and floral vagility and constraining specialization in mutualism. Modern perturbations by logging and pesticides seem to be well buffered because of the relative openness of the ecosystem (compared to others), although damage has been documented. Insect pollination is as much a keystone process in the boreal forest as elsewhere, despite the immediate counter-impression given by the dominance of wind-pollinated conifers. Nevertheless, there are few studies, botanical or entomologicalin situ. The boreal system offers important opportunities in general and applied research in pollination ecology and synecology generally.

Key words

anthecology boreal floral biology pollinators taiga 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aalders, L. E. &Hall I. V. (1963) The inheritance and morphological development of male-sterility in the common lowbush blueberry,Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 5: 380–383.Google Scholar
  2. Ågren J. (1988a) Between-year variation in flowering and fruit set in frost-prone and frost-sheltered populations of dioeciousRubus chamaemorus.Ecologia 76: 175–183.Google Scholar
  3. Ågren J. (1988b) Sexual differences in biomass and nutrient allocation in the dioeciousRubus chamaemorus.Ecology 69: 962–973.Google Scholar
  4. Ågren J., Elmqvist T. &Tunlid T. (1986) Pollination by deceit, flora sex ratios and seed set in dioeciousRubus chamaemorus.Oecologia 70: 332–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akerberg E. (1974) Red clover—an interesting species for genecological studies.Hereditas 77: 177–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alford D. V. (1969) An experimental study of hybridization and pollination inSalix (willow).Can. J. Bot. 52: 1613–1619.Google Scholar
  7. Baldursson S. (1983) The systematics, introgressive hybridization, and reproductive biology ofCastilleja sulfurea Rydberg andC. occidentalis Torrey (Scrophulariacea). MSc thesis, University of Colorado.Google Scholar
  8. Baldwin K. A. (1991) An introduction to the boreal forest in Ontario.Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 122: 73–86.Google Scholar
  9. Barrett S. C. H. (1988) The evolution, maintenance and loss of self-incompatibility systems. In:Plant Reproductive Ecology: Patterns and Strategies (eds) J. Lovett Doust & L. Lovett Doust) pp. 98–124. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Barrett S. C. H. &Helenurm K. (1981) Sex ratio and life history inAralia nudicaulis (Araliaceae).Evolution 35: 752–762.Google Scholar
  11. Barrett S. C. H. &Helenurm K. (1987) The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs. I. Breeding systems and pollination.Can. J. Bot. 65: 2036–2046.Google Scholar
  12. Barrett S. C. H. &Thompson J. D. (1982) Spatial pattern, floral sex ratios, and fecundity in dioeciousAralia nudicaulis (Araliaceae).Can. J. Bot. 60: 1662–1670.Google Scholar
  13. Batra S. W. (1984) Phytophages and pollinators ofGalium (Rubiaceae) in Eurasia and North America.Envir. Entomol. 13: 1113–1124.Google Scholar
  14. Bauer P. J. (1983) Bumblebee pollination relationships on the Beartooth Plateau tundra of southern Montana.Am. J. Bot. 70: 134–144.Google Scholar
  15. Bawa K. S. (1980) Evolution of dioecy in flowering plants.Ann. Rev. Ecol. Sys. 11: 15–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bawa K. S., Keegan C. R. &Voss R. H. (1982) Sexual dimorphism inAralia nudicaulis L. (Araliaceae).Evolution 36: 371–378.Google Scholar
  17. Bell G., LeFebvre L., Giraldeau L-A. &Weary D. (1984) Partial preference of insects for the male flowers of an annual herb.Oecologia 64: 287–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Benham B. R. (1969) Insect visitors toChaemanerion angustifolium and their behavior in relation to pollination.Entomologist 102: 221–228.Google Scholar
  19. Bonan G. B. &Shugart H. H. (1989) Environmental factors and ecological processes in boreal forests.Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 20: 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bouseman J. K. &LaBerge W. E. (1979) A revision of the bees of the genusAndrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part IX. SubgenusMelandrena.Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 104: 275–389.Google Scholar
  21. Boyden T. C. (1982) The pollination biology ofCalypsobulbosa var.americana (Orchidaceae): Initial deception of bumblebee visitors.Oecologia 55: 178–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Broderick D. H. (1990) The biology of Canadian weeds. 93.Epilobium angustifolium L. (Onagraceae).Can. J. Plant Sci. 70: 247–259.Google Scholar
  23. Buchmann S. L. (1983) Buzz pollination in Angiosperms. In:Handbook of Experimental Pollination Biology (eds C. E. Jones & R. J. Little) pp. 73–113. Van Nostrand-Rheinhold, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  24. Catling P. M. (1983) Autogamy in eastern Canadian Orchidaceae: A review of current knowledge and some new observations.Nat. Can. 110: 37–53.Google Scholar
  25. Catling P. M. (1984) Distribution and pollination biology of Canadian orchids. In:Proceedings of the 11th World Conference (ed. K. W. Tan) pp. 121–135. 11th World Orchid Conference, Miami, Florida.Google Scholar
  26. Catling P. M. (1990) Auto-pollination in the Orchidaceae. In:Orchid Biology, Review and Perspectives, V. (ed. J. Arditti) pp. 123–158. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
  27. Catling P. M. &Catling V. R. (1991) A synopsis of breeding systems and pollination in North American orchids,Lindleyana 6: 187–210.Google Scholar
  28. Charlesworth D. (1993) Why are unisexual flowers associated with wind pollination and unspecialized pollinators?Am. Nat. 141: 481–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chertov O. G. (1981)Ekologiia Lesnykh Zemel: Pochvenno-ekologicheskoe Issledovanie Lesnykh Mestoobitanii. Nauka, Leningrad.Google Scholar
  30. Chiasson H. (1986) A Synopsis of the Thysanoptera (Thrips) of Canada. Macdonald College, McGill University. Lyman Entomological Museum and Research Laboratory. Memoir No. 17.Google Scholar
  31. Crawford R. M. M. &Balfour J. (1983) Female predominant sex-ratios and physiological differentiation in arctic willow.J. Ecol. 71: 149–160.Google Scholar
  32. Crompton C. W., Hall I. V., Jensen K. I. N. &Hilderbrand P. D. (1988) The biology of Canadian weeds. 83.Hypericum perforatum L.Can. J. Plant Sci. 68: 149–162.Google Scholar
  33. D'Albore G. C. R. (1983) Osservazioni sugli insetti impollinatori di alcune leguminose (Trifolium pratense L.,Vicia cracca L.,Hedysarum coronarium L.,Astragalus glycyphyllos L.,Lupinus albus L.) in un areale specializzato.Ann. Fac. Agraria, Perugia 37: 149–160.Google Scholar
  34. Danks H. V. (1978) Modes of seasonal adaptation in the insects. I. Winter survival.Can. Entomol. 110: 1167–1205.Google Scholar
  35. Danks H. V. (1979)Canada and Its Insect Fauna. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, No. 108. Entomological Society of Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  36. Danks H. V. (1981)Arctic Arthropods. A Review of Systematics and Ecology with Particular Reference to the North American Fauna. Entomological Society of Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  37. Danks H. V. (1987) Insect plant interactions in arctic regions.Rev. Entomol. Québec 31: 52–75.Google Scholar
  38. Danks H. V. &Foottit R. G. (1989) Insects of the boreal zone of Canada.Can. Entomol. 121: 625–690.Google Scholar
  39. Darwin C. (1877)The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species. Murray, London.Google Scholar
  40. Di-Giovanni F. &Kevan P. G. (1990) Factors affecting pollen dynamics and its importance to pollen contamination: A review.Can. J. For. Res. 21: 1155–1170.Google Scholar
  41. Edwards J. (1985) Effects of herbivory by moose on flower and fruit production ofAralia nudicaulis.J. Ecol. 73: 861–868.Google Scholar
  42. Elliott-Fisk D. L. (1988) The Boreal forest. In:North American Terrestrial Vegetation (eds M. G. Barbour & W. D. Billings) pp. 33–62. Cambridge University Press, UK.Google Scholar
  43. Elmqvist T. (1987) Sexual dimorphism in two boreal dioecious plants in relation to herbivores and pollinators. PhD thesis, Umea University, Sweden.Google Scholar
  44. Elmqvist T., Ågren J. &Tunlid A. (1988a) Sexual dimorphism and between-year variation in flowering, fruit set and pollinator behaviour in a boreal willow.Oikos 53: 58–66.Google Scholar
  45. Elmqvist T., Ericson L., Danell K. &Salomonson A. (1988b) Latitudinal sex ratio variation in willows,Salix spp., and gradients in vole herbivory.Oikos 53: 259–266.Google Scholar
  46. Finnamore B. &Neary M. E. (1978) Blueberry pollinators of Nova Scotia, with a check list of the blueberry pollinators of eastern Canada and northeastern United States.Ann. Soc. Entomol. Québec 23: 168–181.Google Scholar
  47. Flanagan L. B. &Bain J. E. (1988) The biological flora of Canada. 8.Aralia nudicaulis L., wild sarsaparilla.Can. Field-Nat. 102: 45–59.Google Scholar
  48. Flanagan L. B. &Moser W. (1985) Flowering phenology, floral display and reproductive success in dioecious,Aralia nudicaulis L. (Araliaceae)Oecologia 68: 23–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Flinn M. A. &Wein R. W. (1977) Depth of underground plant organs and theoretical survival during fire.Can. J. Bot. 55: 2550–2554.Google Scholar
  50. Fussell M. &Corbet S. A. (1992) The nesting places of some British bumble bees.J. Apic. Res. 31: 32–41.Google Scholar
  51. Fye R. E. (1965) Biology of Apoidea taken in trap nests in northwestern Ontario (Hymenoptera).Can. Entomol. 97: 863–877Google Scholar
  52. Fye R. E. (1972) The effect of forest disturbances on populations of wasps and bees in northwestern Ontario (Hymenoptera: Aculeata).Can. Entomol. 104: 1623–1633.Google Scholar
  53. Galen C. &Plowright R. C. (1985) The effects of nectar level and flower development on pollen carry-over in inflorescences of fireweedEpilobium angustifolium (Onagraceae).Can. J. Bot. 63: 488–491.Google Scholar
  54. Galen C., Plowright R. C. &Thomson J. D. (1985) Flower biology and regulation of seed set and seed size in the lily,Clintonia borealis.Am. J. Bot. 72: 1544–1552.Google Scholar
  55. Galen C. &Weger H. G. (1986) Re-evaluating the significance of correlations between seed number and size: Evidence from a natural population of the lily,Clintonia borealis, Am. J. Bot. 73: 346–352.Google Scholar
  56. Ganders F. R. (1979) The biology of heterostyly.NZ J. Bot. 17: 607–635.Google Scholar
  57. Ganeshaiah K. N. &Shaankar R. U. (1991) Floral sex ratios in monoecious species—Why are trees more male-biased than herbs?Curr. Sci. 60: 319–321.Google Scholar
  58. Geber M. (1982) Architecture, size, and reproduction in plants: A pollination study ofMertensia ciliata (Jamés) G. Don. MSc thesis, Oregon State University.Google Scholar
  59. Gorham J. R. (1976) orchid pollination byAedes mosquitoes in Alaska.Am. Mid. Nat. 95: 208–210.Google Scholar
  60. Graenicher S. (1990) Wisconsin flowers and their pollination.Bull. Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc. 7: 19–77.Google Scholar
  61. Grimstad P. R. &DeFoliart G. R. (1974) Nectar sources of Wisconsin mosquitoes.J. Med. Entomol. 11: 331–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Grimstad P. R. &DeFoliart G. R. (1975) Mosquito nectar feeding in Wisconsin in relation to twilight and microclimate.J. Med. Entomol. 11: 691–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Gross R. S. &Werner P. A. (1983) Relationships among flowering phenology, insect visitors, and seed-set of individuals: Experimental studies on four co-occurring species of goldenrod (Solidago: Compositae).Ecol. Monogr. 53: 95–117.Google Scholar
  64. Haber E. (1988) Hybridization ofPyrola chlorantha (Ericaceae) in North America.Can. J. Bot. 66: 1993–2000.Google Scholar
  65. Hagerup O. (1952) Bud autogamy in some northern orchids.Phytomorphology 2: 51–60.Google Scholar
  66. Hagerup O. (1954) Autogamy in some drooping Bicornes flowers.Bot. Tidsskrift 51: 103–116.Google Scholar
  67. Hall I. V. &Aalders L. E. (1961) Note on male sterility in the common lowbush blueberry,Vaccinium angustifolium Air.Can. J. Plant Sci. 41: 865.Google Scholar
  68. Hall I. V., Aalders L. E. &Wood G. W. (1966) Female sterility in the common lowbush blueberry,Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 8: 296–299.Google Scholar
  69. Hall I. V. &Shay J. M. (1981) The biological flora of Canada. 3.Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. var.minus Lodd. Supplementary account.,Can. Field Nat. 95: 434–464.Google Scholar
  70. Hansen R. W. &Osgood E. A. (1983) Insects visiting flowers of wild red raspberry in spruce-fir forested areas of eastern Maine.Entomol. News 94: 147–151.Google Scholar
  71. Haslerud H. D. (1974) Pollination of some Ericaceae in Norway.Norwegian J. Bot. 21: 211–216.Google Scholar
  72. Heinrich B. (1976a) Flowering phenologies: Bog, woodland, and disturbed habitats.Ecology 57: 890–899.Google Scholar
  73. Heinrich B. (1976b) Foraging specializations of individual bumblebees.Ecol. Monogr. 46: 105–128.Google Scholar
  74. Heinrich B. (1979a) Majoring and minoring by foraging bumblebees,Bombus vagans: an experimental study.Ecology 60: 245–255.Google Scholar
  75. Heinrich B. (1979b)Bumblebee Economics. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  76. Heinselman M. L. (1981) Fire and succession in the conifer forests of northern North America. In:Forest Succession: Concepts and Application (eds D. C. West, H. H. Shugart & D. B. Botkin) pp. 374–405. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  77. Helenurm K. &Barrett S. C. H. (1987) The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs. II. Phenology of flowering and fruiting.Can. J. Bot. 65: 2047–2056.Google Scholar
  78. Henderson G., Holland P. G. &Werren G. L. (1979) The natural history of a subarctic adventive:Epilobium angustifolium L. (Onagraceae) at Schefferville, Québec,Nat. Can. 106: 425–437.Google Scholar
  79. Hippa H., Koponen S. &Osmonen O. (1978) Role of bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in pollination of the cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) in northern Fennescandia.Rep. Kevo Subarct. Res. Stat. 14: 31–37.Google Scholar
  80. Hippa H., Koponen S. &Osmonen O. (1981) Pollen transport and pollinating efficiency of flower visitors to the cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) in northern Fennescandia.Rep. Kevo Subarct. Res. Stat. 17: 58–66.Google Scholar
  81. Hocking B. (1953) The intrinsic range and speed of flight of insects.Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 104: 223–345.Google Scholar
  82. Hurd P. D. Jr (1979) Superfamily Apoidea. In:Catalog of Hymenoptera North of Mexico. Vol. 2. Apocrita (Aculeata) (eds K. V. Krombein, P. D. Hurd Jr, D. R. Smith & B. D. Burks) pp. 1741–2209. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  83. Johnson E. A. (1975) Buried seed populations in the subarctic forest east of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories.Can. J. Bot. 53: 2933–2941.Google Scholar
  84. Kaigorodova M. S. (1976) Antekologiya rastenii Polarnogo Urala.Ekol. Opileniya Perm: Permskii Univ. 2: 3–29.Google Scholar
  85. Kallunki J. A. (1981) Reproductive biology of mixedspecies populations ofGoodyera (Orchidaceae) in northern Michigan.Brittonia 33: 137–155.Google Scholar
  86. Kangasjarvi J. &Oksanen J. (1989) Pollinator behaviour in cultivated and wild arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus L.)J. Agric. Sci. Finland 61: 33–38.Google Scholar
  87. Karron J. D. (1987) The pollination ecology of cooccurring geographically restricted and widespread species ofAstragalus (Fabaceae).Biol. Cons. 39: 179–193.Google Scholar
  88. Karron J. D. (1989) Breeding systems and levels of inbreeding depression in geographically restricted and widespread species ofAstragalus (Fabaceae).Am. J. Bot. 76: 331–340.Google Scholar
  89. Kay Q. O. N. (1985) Nectar from willow catkins as a food source for Blue Tits.Bird Study 32: 40–44.Google Scholar
  90. Kevan P. G. (1972) Insect pollination of high arctic flowers.J. Ecol. 60: 831–867.Google Scholar
  91. Kevan P. G. (1973) Parasitoid wasps as flower visitors in the Canadian high arctic.Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, Pflanzen-und Umweltschutz 46: 3–7.Google Scholar
  92. Kevan P. G. &Baker H. G. (1983) Insects as flower visitors and pollinators.Ann. Rev. Entomol. 28: 407–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kevan P. G. &Baker H. G. (1984) Insects on flowers. In:Ecological Entomology (eds C. B. Huffaker & R. L. Rabb) pp. 608–631. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  94. Kevan P. G. &Collins M. (1974) Bees, blueberties, birds and budworms.Osprey (Newfound. Hist. Soc. Newsl.) 5: 54–72.Google Scholar
  95. Kevan P. G. &Danks H. V. (1986) Arctic insects. In:The Arctic and Its Wildlife (ed. B. Sage) pp. 72–77. Croom Helm, Oxford.Google Scholar
  96. Kevan P. G. & Plowright R. C. (1989) Fenitrothion and insect pollinators. In:Environmental Effects of Fenitrotbion Use in Forestry (eds W. R. Ernst, P. A. Pearce & T. L. Pollock) pp. 13–42. Pesticides Issues Team, Conservation and Protection, Environment Canada, Atlantic Region.Google Scholar
  97. Kevan P. G. &Plowright R. C. (1993) Impact of pesticides in forest pollination. In:Forest Pest Insects in Canada (eds W. C. H. Ives & J. Mullins) Porestry Canada, Ottawa (in press).Google Scholar
  98. Knerer G. &Atwood C. E. (1962) Further notes on the genusEvylaeus Roberrson (Hymenoptera: Halictidae)Can. Entomol. 96: 957–962.Google Scholar
  99. Knerer C. &Atwood C. E. (1964) An annotated check list of the genusAndrena in Ontario (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae).Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 94: 41–56.Google Scholar
  100. Knudsen J. T. &Olesen J. M. (1983) Buzz-pollination and patterns in sexual traits in north European Pyrolaceae.Am. J. Bot. 80: 900–913.Google Scholar
  101. Knudsen J. T. &Tolisten L. (1991) Floral scent and intrafloral scent differentiation inMoneses andPyrola (Pyrolaceae).Plant Sys. Evol. 177: 81–91.Google Scholar
  102. Kolenosky G. B. (1989) Reproductive biology of black bears in east-central Ontario.Int. Conf. Bear Res. Manag. 8: 385–392Google Scholar
  103. Koponen A. (1990) Entomophily in the Splachnaceae.Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 104: 115–127.Google Scholar
  104. Krunic M. D. &Salt R. W. (1971) Seasonal changes in glycerol content and supercooling points ofMegachile rotundata (F.) andM. relativa Cress.Can. J. Zool. 49: 663–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. La Berge W. E. (1990) A revision of the bees of the genusAndrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part X. SubgenusAndrena.Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106: 395–525.Google Scholar
  106. La Roi G. H. (1967) Ecological studies in the boreal spruce-fir forests of the North American taiga. I. Analysis of the vascular flora.Ecol. Monogr. 37: 229–253.Google Scholar
  107. La Roi G. H. &Stringer M. H. L. (1976) Ecological studies in the boreal spruce-fir forests of the North American taiga. II. Analysis of the bryophyte flora.Can. J. Bot. 54: 619–643.Google Scholar
  108. Larsen J. A. (1980)The Boreal Ecosystem. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  109. Laverty T. M. &Harder L. D. (1988) The bumblebees of eastern Canada.Can. Entomol. 120: 965–987.Google Scholar
  110. Laverty T. M. &Plowright R. C. (1988) Flower handling by bumblebees: A comparison of specialists and generalists.Anim. Behav. 36: 733–740.Google Scholar
  111. Levkovskii V. P. &Tikhmenev E. A. (1982) Antekologiya nekotorikh zlakov yuzhnoi chasti Kamchatskogo poluostrova.Ekol. Opileniya rastenii Perm: Permskii Univ. 6: 41–48.Google Scholar
  112. Lewis T. (1973)Thrips, Their Biology, Ecology and Economic Importance. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  113. Linsley E. G. (1958) The ecology of solitary bees.Hilgardia 27: 543–599.Google Scholar
  114. Liston A. (1990) An evolutionary study ofAstragalus sec.Leptocarpi subsect.californici (Fabaceae) (California). PhD thesis, Claremont Graduate School.Google Scholar
  115. Lloyd D. G. (1974) Female-predominant sex ratios of dioecious and gynodioecious angiosperms.Heredity 32: 35–44.Google Scholar
  116. Løken A. (1950) Bumble bees in relation toAconitum septentrionale in western Norway.Norsk Entomol. Tidsskrift 8: 1–16.Google Scholar
  117. Løken A. (1973) Studies on Scandinavian bumblebees (Hymenoptera, Apidae).Norwegian J. Entomol. 20: 1–218.Google Scholar
  118. Macior L. W. (1974) Pollination ecology of the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains.Melanderia 15: 1–59.Google Scholar
  119. Macior L. W. (1975) The pollination ecology ofPedicularis (Scrophulariaceae) in the Yukon Territory.Am. J. Bot. 62: 1065–1072.Google Scholar
  120. Macior L. W. (1982) Plant community and pollinator dynamics in the evolution of pollination mechanisms inPedicularis (Scrophulariaceae) In:Pollination and Evolution (eds J. A. Armstrong, J. M. Powell & A. J. Richards) pp. 29–46. Royal Botanic Gardens, Bydney.Google Scholar
  121. McRae D. J. (1979) Prescribed burning in Jack Pine logging slash: A review. Great Lakes Forest Research Centre, Sault Ste Marie Ontario. Report O-X-287.Google Scholar
  122. MacSwain J. W. (1956) A classification of the first instar larvae of the Meloidae (Coleoptera).Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 12: 1–182.Google Scholar
  123. Magnarelli L. A. (1978) Nectar-feeding by female mosquitoes and its relation to follicular development and parity.J. Med. Entomol 14: 527–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Magnarelli L. A. (1979) Diurnal nectar-feeding ofAedes cantator andAedes sollicitans (Diptera: Culicidae).Envir. Entomol. 8: 949–955.Google Scholar
  125. Magnarelli L. A. (1983) Nectar sugars and caloric reserves in natural populations ofAedes canadensis andAedes stimulans (Diptera: Culicidae).Envir. Entomol. 12: 1482–1486.Google Scholar
  126. Mesler M. R., Ackerman J. D. &Lu K. L. (1980) The effectiveness of fungus gnats as pollinatorsAm. J. Bot. 67: 564–567.Google Scholar
  127. Miliczky E. R. & Osgood E. A. (1979) The effects of spraying with Sevin-4-oil on insect pollinators and pollination in a Spruce Fir forest. University of Maine, Life Sciences Agriculture Experiment Station, Technical Bulletin No. 90Google Scholar
  128. Miller R. B. (1978) The pollination ecology ofAquilegia elegantula andA. caerulea (Ranunculaceae) in Colorado.Am. J. Bot. 65: 406–414.Google Scholar
  129. Mitchell T. B. (1960) Bees of the eastern United States. Volume 1. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, Technical Bulletin 141.Google Scholar
  130. Mitchell;-Olds T. &Waller D. M. (1985) Relative performance of selfed and outcrossed progeny inImpatiens capensis.Evolution 39: 533–544.Google Scholar
  131. Mjelde A. (1983) The foraging strategy ofBombus consobrinus (Hymenoptera: Apidae).Acta Entomol. Fennica 42: 51–56.Google Scholar
  132. Mohr N. A. &Kevan P. G. (1987) Pollinators and pollination requirements of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. andV. myrtilloides Michx.) and cranberry (V. macrocarpon Ait). with notes on highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.) and lignonberry (V. vitis-idaea L.).Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 118: 149–154.Google Scholar
  133. Moir D. (1958) A floristic survey of the Severn River drainage basin of northwestern Ontario. PhD thesis, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  134. Mosquin T. A. (1966) A new taxonomy forEpilobium angustifolium L.Brittonia 18: 167–188.Google Scholar
  135. Mosquin T. (1970) The reproductive biology ofCalypso bulbosa (Orchidaceae)Can. Field-Nat. 84: 291–296.Google Scholar
  136. Mosquin T. (1985) The explosive pollination mechanism in the pop flower,Chamaepericlymenum (Cornaceae).Can. Field-Nat. 99: 1–12.Google Scholar
  137. Myerscough P. J. (1980) Biological flora of the British Isles.Epilobium angustifolium L. (Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop.).J. Ecol. 68: 1047–1074.Google Scholar
  138. National Research Council of Canada (1981)Pesticidepollinator Interactions. NRCC/CNRC Publications. No. 18471. Environmental Secretariat National Rcsearch Council Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  139. Neff J. L. &Simpson B. B. (1981) Oil-collecting structures in the Anthophoridae (Hymenoptera): Morphology, function and use in systematics.J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 54: 95–123.Google Scholar
  140. Pellmyr O. (1989) The cost of mutualism: interactions betweenTrollias europaeus and its pollinating parasites.Oecologia 78: 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Pellmyr O. &Karkkainen K. (1987) Gronvide, enda fodokalla for nektaratande insekter under senvaren i Dulanka, Finland.Svensk Bot. Tidsskrift Stockholm 81: 43–46.Google Scholar
  142. Pellmyr O. &Patt J. M. (1986) Function of olfactory and visual stimuli in pollination ofLysichiton americanum (Araceae) by staphylinid beetles.Madroñp 33: 47–54.Google Scholar
  143. Plowright R. C. (1981) Nectar production in the boreal forest lilyClintonia borealis.Can. J. Bot. 59: 156–160.Google Scholar
  144. Plowright R. C. &Laverty T. M. (1984) The ecology and sociobiology of bumble bees.Ann. Rev. Entomol. 29: 175–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Plowright R. C. &Thaler G. R. (1979) The effect of biocides on forest pollination in New Brunswick.Proc. IV Int. Symp. Pollination. Special Miscellaneous Publication, Maryland Agriculture Experimental Station 1: 483–487.Google Scholar
  146. Plowright R. C. &Thomson J. D. (1980) Pollen carryover, nectar rewards, and pollinator behavior with special reference toDiervilla lonicera.Oecologia 46: 68–74.Google Scholar
  147. Plowright R. C., Thomson J. D. &Thaler G. R. (1980) Pollen removal inCypripedium acaule (Orchidaceae) in relation to aerial fenitrothion spraying in New Brunswick.Can. Entomol. 112: 765–769.Google Scholar
  148. Ponomarev A. N. (1966) Nekotorye prisposobleniya zlakov k opyleniyu vetrom. Gramineae.Bot. Zburnal 51: 28–39.Google Scholar
  149. Ponomarev A. N. (1978) Sutochnaya rirmika opyleniya i vidoobrazvanie.Bot. Zhurnal 53: 1371–1383.Google Scholar
  150. Ponomarev A. N. &Kolesnik L. Ya. (1974) K antekologii nekotorykh steppnykh podorozhnikov (Plantago L.).Nauchnye Doklady Vysshei Shkoly. Biol. Nauki 17: 50–56.Google Scholar
  151. Ponomarev A. N. &Podosenova T. I. (1974) Sutochnaya ritmika tsveteniya i opyleniya osokovykh i sitnikovykh.Nauchnye Doklady Vysshei Shkoly. Biol. Nauki 17: 58–64.Google Scholar
  152. Ponomarev A. N. &Vereshchagina V. A. (1973) Antekologicheskii ocherk temnokhvoinogo lesa. Problemi Biogeotsenologii, Geobotaniki i botanicheskoi geografii. Nauka, Leningrad. pp. 196–207.Google Scholar
  153. Popov V. V. (1958) Special features of the correlated evolution ofMacropis, Epeoloides (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) andLysimachia (Primulaceae).Entomol. Obozrenie 37: 433–451 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  154. Proctor M. C. G. (1978) Insect pollination syndrones in an evolutionary and ecosystematic context. In:The Pollination of Flowers by Insects (ed. A. J. Richards) pp 105–116. Symposium of the Linnaean Society of London, No. 6. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  155. Proctor M. C. G. &Yeo P. (1973)The Pollination of Flowers p. 69. William Collins Sons & Co., Glasgow.Google Scholar
  156. Rathcke B. &Real L. (1993) Autogamy and inbreeding depression in mountain laurel,Kalmia latifolia (Ericaceae).Am. J. Bot. 80: 143–146.Google Scholar
  157. Reader R. J. (1977) Bog cricad flowers: Selfcompatibility and relative attractiveness to bees.Can. J. Bot. 55: 2279–2287.Google Scholar
  158. Real L. &Rathcke B. J. (1988) Patterns of individual variability in floral resources.Ecology 69: 728–735.Google Scholar
  159. Real L. &Rathcke B. J. (1991) Individual variation in nectar production and its effect on fitness inKalmio latifolia.Ecology 72: 149–155.Google Scholar
  160. Regal P. J. (1982) Pollination by wind and animals: Ecology of geographic patterns.Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 13: 497–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Richards A. J. (1986)Plant Breeding Systems. George Allen & Unwin, London.Google Scholar
  162. Rowe J. S. (1983) Concepts of fire effects on plant individuals and species. In:The Role of Fire in Northern Circumpolar Ecosystems (eds R. W. Wein & D. A. MacLean) pp. 135–154 Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  163. Rowe J. S. &Scotter G. W. (1973) Fire in the boreal forest.Quat. Res. 3: 444–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Rust R. W. (1977) Pollination inImpatiens capensis andImpatiens pallida (Balsaminaceae).Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104: 361–367.Google Scholar
  165. Rust R. W. (1987) Collecting ofPinus (Pinaceae) pollen byOsmia bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).Envir. Entomol. 16: 668–671.Google Scholar
  166. Sakagami S. F. &Toda M. J. (1986) Some arctic and subarctic solitary bees collected at Inuvik and Tuktoryaktuk, NWT, Canada (Hymenoptera: Apoidea).Can. Entomol. 118: 395–405.Google Scholar
  167. Sandholm H. A. &Pricf R. D. (1962) Field observations on the nectar feeding habits of some Minnesota mosquitoes.Mosquito News 22: 346–349.Google Scholar
  168. Schaefer C. H. &Miura T. (1972) Sources of energy utilized by natural populations of the mosquito,Culex tarsalis, for overwintering.J. Insect Physiol. 18: 797–805.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Seppar E. E. (1972) Antekologiya nekotorikh vidov kopeecnika (Hedysarum L.). 2. Nektaronosnost i opylenie tsvetkovHedysarum cretaceum Fisch.Nauchnye Doklady Vysshei Shkoly Biol. Nauki 4: 51–54.Google Scholar
  170. Shamurin V. F. (1966) Rol' nasekomikh-opilitelei v tundrovikh soobschchestvakh. In: Orgaznismi i prirodnaya sreda.Voprosi Geografii 69: 98–117.Google Scholar
  171. Shamurin V. F. &Tikhmenev E. A. (1974) Vzaimosvyazi mezhdy entomofil'nimi resteniyami i antofil'nimi nasekomimi v biogeotsenozakh Arktiki.Zhurnal Obshchei Biol 34: 243–250.Google Scholar
  172. Silen F. (1905) Blombiologiska iakttagelser i Kittilä Lappmark.Soc. Pro Fauna Flora Fenn. Meddelanden 31: 80–99.Google Scholar
  173. Silen F. (1906) Blombiologiska iakttagelser i södra Finland.Soc. Pro Fauna Flora Fenn. Meddelanden 32: 120–134.Google Scholar
  174. Small E. (1976) Insect pollinator of the Mer Bleue peat bog of Ottawa.Can. Field Nat. 90: 22–28.Google Scholar
  175. SOMER (1985) Effets des Insecticides Fénitrothion et Aminocarbe sur la Fructification de Quatre Espèces Végétales en Milieu Forestier. Final Report to Gouvernement du Québec, Ministere de l'Énergie et des Ressources. SOMER, Société Multidisciplinaire d'Études et de Recherches de Montréal Inc., Montreal.Google Scholar
  176. Sømme L. (1982) Supercooling and winter survival in terrestrial arthropods.Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 73A: 519–543.Google Scholar
  177. Stebbins G. L. (1957) Self-fertilization and variability in the higher plants.Am. Nat. 41: 337–354.Google Scholar
  178. Stelleman P. (1984) The significance of biotic pollination in a nominally anemophilous plant:Plantago lanceolata.Proc. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akad. van Wetenschappen, Series C, Biol. Med. Serv. 87: 95–119.Google Scholar
  179. Stephen W. P., Bohart G. E. &Torchio P. T. (1969)The Biology and External Morphology of Bees with a Synopsis of the Genera of Northwestern America. Agricultural Experimental Station, Oregon State University, Corvallis.Google Scholar
  180. Sutherland J. R., Woods T. A. D. &Miller G. E. (1984) Effect of selected insecticides and fungicides on germination of Douglas-fir and white spruce pollen.Tree Planters' Notes 34: 22–24.Google Scholar
  181. Svensson B. G., Ebmer P. A. W. &Sakagami S. F. (1977)Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) boreale, a new Halictinae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) species found in northern Sweden and on Hokkaido, Japan, with notes on its biology.Entomol. Scand 8: 219–229.Google Scholar
  182. Swales D. E. (1979) Nectaries of certain Arctic and Subarctic plants, with notes on pollination.Rhodora 81: 363–407.Google Scholar
  183. Syme P. D. (1975) The effects of flowers on the longevity and fecundity of two native parasites of the European pine shoot moth in Ontario.Envir. Entomol. 4: 337–346.Google Scholar
  184. Tepedino V. J. &Stackhouse M. (1987) Bee visitors of sweetvetch,Hedysarum boreale (Leguminosae), and their pollen-collecting activities.Great Basin Nat. 47: 314–318.Google Scholar
  185. Thaler G. R. &Plowright R. C. (1980) The effect of aerial insecticide spraying for spruce budworm control on the fecundity of entomophilous plants in New Brunswick.Can. J. Bot. 58: 2022–2027.Google Scholar
  186. Thien L. B. (1969) Mosquito pollination ofHabenaria obtusata (Orchidaceae).Am. J. Bot. 56: 232–237.Google Scholar
  187. Thien L. B. &Marcks B. G. (1972) The floral biology ofArethusa bulbosa, Calopogon tuberous, andPogonia ophioglossoides (Orchidaceae).Can. J. Bot. 50: 2319–2325.Google Scholar
  188. Thien L. B. &Utech F. (1970) The mode of pollination inHabenaria obtusata (Orchidaceae).Am. J. Bot. 57: 1031–1035.Google Scholar
  189. Thomas K. (1986) Pollination ecology and reproductive biology ofSarracenia purpurea L. MSc thesis, York University.Google Scholar
  190. Thomson J. D. (1985) Pollination and seed set inDiervilla lonicera (Caprifoliaceae): Temporal patterns of flower and ovule development.Am. J. Bot. 72: 737–740.Google Scholar
  191. Thomson J. D. &Brunet J. (1990) Hypotheses for the evolution of dioecy in seed plants.TREE 5: 11–16.Google Scholar
  192. Thomson J. D. McKenna M. A. &Cruzan M. B. (1989) Temporal patterns of nectar and pollen production inAralia hispida: Implications for reproductive success.Ecology 70: 1061–1068.Google Scholar
  193. Thomson J. D., Maddison W. P. &Plowright R. C. (1982) Behavior of bumble bee pollinators ofAralia hispida Vent. (Araliaceae).Oecologia 54: 326–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Thomson J. D., Plowright R. C. &Thaler G. R. (1985) Matacil insecticide spraying, pollinator mortality, and plant fecundity in New Brunswick forests.Can. J. Bot. 63: 2056–2061.Google Scholar
  195. Thorpe E. J. (1979) The effects of forest spraying on solitary bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) populations in New Brunswick. MSc thesis, University of New Brunswick.Google Scholar
  196. Tikhmenev E. A. (1979) Tsveteni'e i opyleni'e nekotorikh vereskovikh (Ericaceae) na severe Dal'nego Vostoka.Bot. Zhurnal 64: 595–601.Google Scholar
  197. Tikhmenev E. A. (1981) K antekologii kustarnichkov i travyanistikh mnogoletnikov khrebta Bolshoi Annachag. In:Biologiya i ekologiya rastennii basseina Kolymi. Akademia Nank, Viadivostok, USSR. pp. 47–55.Google Scholar
  198. Tikhmenev E. A. (1984) Opyleni'e i samoopilitel, niy potentsial entomofilnikh rastenii arcticheskikh i gornikh tundr Severo-Vostoka SSSR.Ekologiya 4: 8–15.Google Scholar
  199. van der Pijl L. &Dodson C. (1966)Orchid Flowers. Their Pollination and Evolution. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Florida.Google Scholar
  200. Vereshchagina V. A. (1965) Ekologiya tsveteniya i opyleniyaOxalis acetosells L.Bot. Zhurnal 50: 1078–1091.Google Scholar
  201. Vereshchagina V. A. (1968) Antekologiya rastenii temnokh-voinoi taigi.Uchenie Zapiskii U'yanovskogo Gosudarstvennogo Instituta 23: 25–28.Google Scholar
  202. Vereshchagina V. A. (1970) K antekologii pod' ‘el’ nika obyknoven-nogo (Monotropa hypopitys Grantz.)Uchenie Zapiskii Permskogo Universiteta.Biologiya 206: 59–64.Google Scholar
  203. Vogel S. (1974) Ölblumen and ölsammelnde Bienen.Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur Abhandlungen der Mathematish-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse. Literatur Math-Naturwiss. Klasse. Tropische und dubtropische Pflanzenwelt 7: 1–267.Google Scholar
  204. Voss E. G. &Riefner R. E. (1983) A pyralid moth (Lepidoptera) as pollinator of blunt-leaf orchid.Great Lakes Entomol. 16: 57–60.Google Scholar
  205. Vroege P. W. &Stelleman P. (1990) Insect and wind pollination inSalix repens L. andSalix caprea L.Israel J. Bot 39: 125–132.Google Scholar
  206. Whigham D. (1974) An ecological life history study ofUvularia perfoliata L.Am. Midl. Nat. 91: 343–359.Google Scholar
  207. Whitehead D. R. (1983) Wind pollination: Some ecological and evolutionary perspectives. In:Pollination Biology (ed. L. Real) pp. 97–108. Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
  208. Wiens D., Calvin C. L., Wilson C. A., Davern C. I., Frank D. &Seavey S. R. (1987) Reproductive success spontaneous embryo abortion, and genetic load in flowering plants.Oecologia 71: 501–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Williams J. B. &Batzli G. O. (1982) Pollination and dispersion of five species of lousewort (Pedicularis) near Atkasook, Alaska, USA.Arctic Alpine Res. 14: 59–74.Google Scholar
  210. Zoladeski C. A. (1989) A phytosociological analysis of the boreal forests of northwestern Ontario. PhD thesis, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  211. Zoladeski C. A. &Maycock P. F. (1990) Dynamics of the boreal forest in northwestern Ontario.Am. Midl. Nat. 124: 289–300.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ecological Society of Japan 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. G. Kevan
    • 1
  • E. A. Tikhmenev
    • 2
  • M. Usui
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental BiologyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  2. 2.Institute for Biological Problems of the NorthAcademy of SciencesMagadanRussia

Personalised recommendations