Advertisement

Climate Dynamics

, Volume 12, Issue 7, pp 449–466 | Cite as

Sensitivity of the Asian summer monsoon to an anomalous Eurasian snow cover within the Météo-France GCM

  • H. Douville
  • J. -F. Royer
Article

Abstract

Both observational and numerical studies suggest that the Eurasian winter snow cover has a strong influence on the subsequent summer monsoon in Asia. An updated version of the ARPEGE climate model of Meteo-France, including a simple but physically-based snow parameterization, is used to test the impact of an increased snow mass prescribed at the beginning of March on the simulated summer monsoon circulation and rainfall. The large-scale features of the Asian monsoon are reproduced in a realistic way in the control integration, which is a necessary premise of such a sensitivity test. In the heavy snow cover experiment, the anomalous persistence of the winter snow pack delays the springtime continental heating. This weakens the thermal low over northern India and Persia as well as the southwesterly winds over the monsoon area. There is also a significant decrease in the rainfall over western India and Bengal-Burma, which usually represent the centers of maximum precipitation. Radiative, turbulence transfer and hydrological processes seem to be involved in the snow-monsoon relationship. The changes in the monsoon precipitation are strongly related to changes in the atmospheric circulation and are not reinforced by a local evaporation/convection feedback in our experiment.

Keywords

Summer Monsoon Snow Cover Asian Summer Monsoon Southwesterly Wind Winter Snow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arpe K, Dumenil L, Bengtsson L, Giorgetta M (1994) Variability of the Indian monsoon in the ECHAM3 model. Part II : sensitivity to sea surface temperatures of the northern Indian ocean, soil moisture over Eurasia and the stratospheric QBO. Extended Abstr WMO International Conference on Monsoon Variability and Prediction, pp 661–665, Trieste, Italy, May 94Google Scholar
  2. Baumgartner A, Reichel E (1975) The world water balance — mean annual global, continental and maritime precipitation, evaporation and run-off. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 179Google Scholar
  3. Barnett TP, Dumenil L, Schlese U, Roeckner E, Latif M (1989) The effect of Eurasian snow cover on regional and global climate variations. J Atmos Sci 46:661–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blanford HF (1884) On the connexion of Himalayan snowfall and seasons of drought in India. Proc R Soc London 37:3–22Google Scholar
  5. Bougeault P (1985) A simple parametrization of the large-scale effects of cumulus convection. Mon Weather Rev 113:2108–2121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cariolle D, Déqué M (1986) Southern Hemisphere medium-scale waves and total ozone disturbances in a spectral general circulation model. J Geophy Res - Atmos 91:10825–10846Google Scholar
  7. Cess RD, Potter GL, Zhang MH, Blanchet JP, Chalita S, Colman R, Dazlich DA, Del Genio AD, Dymnikov V, Galin V, Jerrett D, Keup E, Lacis AA, Le Trent H, Liang XZ, Mahfouf JF, McAvaney BJ, Meleshko VP, Mitchell JFB, Morcrette JJ, Norris PM, Randall DA, Rikus L, Roekner E, Royer JF, Schlese U, Scheinin DA, Slingo JM, Sokolov AP, Taylor KE, Washington WM, Wetherald RT, Yagai I (1991) Intercomparison of snow-feedback as produced by 17 general circulation models. Science 253:888–892Google Scholar
  8. Chervin R, Schneider S (1976) On determining the statistical significance of climate experiments with general circulation models. J Atmos Sci 33:405–412Google Scholar
  9. Cohen J, Rind D (1991) The effect of snow cover on the climate. J Clim 4:689–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deardorff JW (1978) Efficient prediction of ground surface temperature and moisture, with inclusion of a layer of vegetation. J Geophy Res - Oceans 83:1889–1903Google Scholar
  11. Déqué M, Dreveton C, Braun A, Cariolle D (1994) The ARPEGE/IFS atmosphere model: a contribution to the French community climate modelling. Clim Dyn 10:249–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dey B, Bhanu Kumar O (1982) An apparent relationship between Eurasian spring snow cover and the advance period of the Indian summer monsoon. J Appl Meteorol 21:1929–1932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dickson R (1984) Eurasian snow cover versus Indian monsoon rainfall — An extension of the Hahn-Shukla results. J Clim Appl Meteorol 23:171–173Google Scholar
  14. Douville H, Royer JF. Mahfouf JF (1995a) A new snow parametrization for the Météo-France climate model, Part 1: validation in stand-alone experiments. Clim Dyn 12:21–35Google Scholar
  15. Douville H, Royer JF, Mahfouf JF (1995b) A new snow parametrization for the Météo-France climate model, Part II: validation in a 3D GCM experiment. Clim 12:37–52Google Scholar
  16. Fennessy MJ, Kinter JL, Kirtman B, Marx L, Nigam S, Schneider E, Shukla J, Straus D, Vernekar A, Xue Y, Zhou J (1994) The simulated Indian monsoon: a GCM sensitivity study. J Clim 7:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Foster DJ Jr, Davy RD (1988) Global snow depth climatology, vol USAFETAC/TN-88/006. USAF Environmental Technical Application Center, Scott Air Force Base, Illinois (Available from the National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC 28801)Google Scholar
  18. Hahn DG, Shukla J (1976) An apparent relationship between Eurasian snow cover and Indian monsoon rainfall. J Atmos Sci 33:2461–2462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kitoh A (1994) AGCM experiments on Tibetan snow and monsoon. Extended Abstr WMO International Conference on Monsoon Variability and Prediction, pp 661–665, Trieste, Italy, May 94Google Scholar
  20. Lau KM, Sheu PJ (1988) Annual cycle, quasi-biennial oscillation, and Southern Oscillation in global precipitation. J Geophys Res 93:10975–10988Google Scholar
  21. Legates DR, Willmott CJ (1990a) Mean seasonal and spatial variability in gauge-corrected, global precipitation. Int J Climatol 10:111–127Google Scholar
  22. Legates DR, Willmott CJ (1990b) Mean seasonal and spatial variability in global surface air temperature. Theor Appl Climatol 41:11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Louis JF, Tiedtke M, Geleyn JF (1982) A short history of the operational PBL-parametrization at ECMWF. ECMWF Workshop Planetary Boundary Layer Parametrization, pp 59–80, ECMWF, Reading, UK, November 81Google Scholar
  24. Mahfouf JF, Manzi AO, Noilhan J, Giordani H, Déqué M (1995) The land surface scheme ISBA within the METEO-FRANCE climate model ARPEGE. Part 1: implementation and preliminary results. J Clim (in press)Google Scholar
  25. Manzi AO (1993) Introduction d'un schéma des transferts solvégétation-atmosphère dans un modèle de circulation générale et application à la déforestation Amazonienne. PhD Thesis, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)Google Scholar
  26. Manzi AO, Planton S (1994) Implementation of the ISBA parametrization scheme for land surface processes in a GCM — an annual cycle experiment. J Hydrol 155:353–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Meehl G (1994a) Influence of the land surface in the Asian summer monsoon: external conditions versus internal feedbacks. J Clim 7:1033–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Meehl G (1994b) Coupled land-ocean-atmosphere processes and south Asian monsoon variability. Science 265:263–267Google Scholar
  29. Meehl G, Washington W (1990) CO2 climate sensitivity and snow-sea ice albedo parametrization in an atmospheric GCM coupled to a mixed-layer ocean model. Clim Change 16:283–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Noilhan J, Planton S (1989) A simple parametrization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon Weather Rev 117:536–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Noilhan J, Lacarrère P, Bougeault P (1991) An experiment with an advanced surface parametrization in a meso beta-scale model. Part III: comparison with the HAPEX-MOBILHY dataset. Mon Weather Rev 119:2393–2413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Palmer TN, Brankovic C, Viterbo P, Miller MJ (1992) Modelling interannual variations of summer monsoons. J Climate 5:399–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Randall DA, Cess RD, Blanchet JP, Chalita S, Colman R, Dazlich DA, Del Genio AD, Keup E, Lacis AA, Le Treut H, Liang XZ, Mahfouf JF, McAvaney BJ, Meleshko VP, Morcrette JJ, Norris PM, Potter GL, Rikus L, Roekner E, Royer JF, Schlese U, Scheinin DA, Sokolov AP, Taylor KE, Wetherald RT, Yanai I, Zhang MH (1994) Analysis of snow feedbacks in 14 general circulation models. J Geophys Res 99:20757–20771Google Scholar
  34. Royer JF, Déqué M, Chauvin F (1994) Monsoon circulations and variability in 10 year simulations with a GCM at different resolutions. Extended Abstr WMO International Conference on Monsoon Variability and Prediction, pp 702–709, Trieste, Italy, May 94Google Scholar
  35. Schutz C, Bregman LD (1987) Global annual snow accumulation by months. The Rand Corporation, N-2551-AF (Available from Rand Corporation, 1200 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406)Google Scholar
  36. Stephenson D, Royer JF (1995) GCM simulation of the Southern Oscillation from 1979-88. Clim Dyn 11:115–128Google Scholar
  37. Sud YC, Smith WE (1985) Influence of local land surface processes on the Indian monsoon: a numerical study. J Clim Appl Meteorol 24:1015–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Timbal B, Mahfouf JF, Royer JF, Cariolle D (1995) Sensitivity to prescribed changes in sea surface temperature and sea-ice in doubled carbon dioxide experiments. Clim Dyn (in press)Google Scholar
  39. Vernekar AD, Zhou J, Shukla J (1995) The effect of Eurasian snow cover on the Indian monsoon. J Clim 8:248–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Verseghy DL (1991) CLASS — a Canadian land surface scheme for GCMS. 1. Soil model. Int J Climatol 11:111–133Google Scholar
  41. Wilson MF, Henderson-Sellers A (1985) A global archive of land cover and soils data for use in general circulation climate models. J Climatol 5:119–143Google Scholar
  42. WMO (1992) Extended Abst WMO International Conference on Simulation of Interannual and Intraseasonal Monsoon Variability. Boulder, USA, October 91Google Scholar
  43. Yanai M, Li C (1994) Mechanism of heating and the boundary layer over the Tibetan Plateau. Mon Weather Rev 122:305–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yang S, Xu L (1994) Linkage between Eurasian winter snow cover and regional Chinese summer rainfall. Int J Climatol 14:739–750Google Scholar
  45. Yasunari T, Kitoh A, Tokioka T (1991) Local and remote responses to excessive snow mass over Eurasia appearing in the northern spring and summer climate — a study with the MRI GCM. J Meteorol Soc Japan 69:473–487Google Scholar
  46. Zwiers FW (1993) Simulation of the Asian summer monsoon with the CCC GCM-1. J Clim 6:470–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Douville
    • 1
  • J. -F. Royer
    • 1
  1. 1.Météo-France/CNRMToulouse CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations