Advertisement

Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 106, Issue 1, pp 15–24 | Cite as

Geographic differentiation among populations ofArabis serrata Fr. & Sav. (Brassicaceae)

  • Ken Oyama
Article

Abstract

Geographic variation in morphological traits of thirteen populations ofArabis serrata was analyzed to characterize the life history of each particular population in the field. These localities varied in altitude, topography, soil type, humidity, vegetation structure and degree of disturbance. Twelve morphological characters were measured in each plant, and populations were compared using both univariate and multivariate analyses. Populations showed significant differences for most of the traits measured. Principal component analyses revealed a significant differentiation among populations although a continuous variation for some traits was noted. Length of capsules and leaf length of inflorescence's stalks were correlated with the number of frost free days and with temperature, precipitation and number of days of the growing season. The number of rosettes was also correlated with the same variables but negatively. Seed weight was correlated positively with altitude but negatively with temperature and length of the growing season. Populations were also differentiated according to soil conditions and disturbance regimes distinguishing different types of populations: I) populations with many small rosettes, and few heavy seeds per capsule in volcanic soils with low disturbance; ii) plants with many small seeds and few rosettes in very disturbed localities along asphalt roadways and mountain trails; and iii) large plants with intermediate seed size and intermediate number of seeds per plant in limestone and serpentine soils under different conditions of disturbance.

Populations ofA. serrata displayed a complex pattern of differentiation in morphological and life history traits in relation to several biotic and abiotic factors. The quantitative nature of the differences among populations ofA. serrata observed in the field deserves further studies (e.g., quantitative genetics and phenotypic plasticity) under controlled conditions in order to assess the extent of differentiation within this species complex.

Key words

Arabis serrata Brassicaceae Ecotypes Geographic variation Morphological variation Population differentiation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Antifinger, A.E. 1981. The genetic basic of microdifferentiation in natural and experimental populations ofBorrichia frutescens in relation to salinity. Evolution35: 1056–1068.Google Scholar
  2. Antonovics, J., Bradshaw, A.D. andTuner, R.G. 1971. Heavy metal tolerance in plants. Adv. Ecol. Res.7: 1–85.Google Scholar
  3. Bookstain, F.L. 1982. Foundations of morphometrics. Ann. Rev. Ecol Syst.13: 451–470.Google Scholar
  4. Chapin, F.S. III andChapin, M.C. 1981. Ecotypic differentiation of growth processes in Carex aquatilis along latitudinal and local gradients. Ecology62: 1000–1009.Google Scholar
  5. Clay, K. andShaw, R. 1981. An experimental demonstration of density-dependent reproduction in a natural population ofDiamorpha smalli, a rare annual. Oecologia51: 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gould, S.J. andJhonston, R.F. 1972. Geographic variation. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst.3: 457–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gross, K.L. 1980. Colonization byVerbascum thapsus (Mullein) of an old-field in Michigan: experiments on the effects of vegetation. J. Ecol.68: 919–927.Google Scholar
  8. Harper, J.L., Lovell, P.H. andMoore, K.G. 1970. The shapes and sizes of seeds. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst.1: 327–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ihara, K. 1976. Mode of local differentiation inArabis lyrata andA. gemmifera (Cruciferae) in Japan. J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo12: 1–36.Google Scholar
  10. Lotz, L.A.P. 1990. The relation between age and size at first flowering ofPlantago major in various habitats. J. Ecol.78: 757–771.Google Scholar
  11. Marshall, D.L., Levin, D.A. andFowler, N.L. 1985. Plasticity in yield components in response to fruit predation and date of fruit initiation in three species ofSesbania (Leguminosae). J. Ecol.73: 71–81.Google Scholar
  12. Masuzawa, T. 1985. Ecological studies on the timberline of Mt. Fuji. I. Structure of plant community and soil development on the timberline. Bot. Mag. Tokyo98: 15–28.Google Scholar
  13. Nishikawa, T. 1985. Chromosome counts of flowering plants of Hokkaido (9). J. Hok. Univ. Educ. (Section II B)36: 25–40.Google Scholar
  14. Ohwi, J. 1938. Symbolae ad Floram Asiae Orientalis 16. Acta Phytotax. Geobot.7: 29–41.Google Scholar
  15. Ohwi, J. 1965. Flora of Japan. Smithonian Institution, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  16. Oyama, K. 1991. Differentiation among populations ofArabis serrata (Cruciferae). Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto.Google Scholar
  17. Pitelka, L.F., Thayler, M.E. andHansen, S.B. 1983. Variation in achene weight inAster acuminatus. Can. J. Bot.61: 1415–1420.Google Scholar
  18. Primack, R.B. 1978. Regulation of seed yield inPlantago. J. Ecol.66: 835–847.Google Scholar
  19. Reyment, R.A., Blackith, R.E. andCampbell, N.A. 1984. Multivariate Morphometrics. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  20. Sakai, K. 1935. Chromosome numbers of alpine plants. Jap. J. Genet.11: 68–73 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  21. Satake, Y., Ohwi, J., Kitamura, S., Watari, S. and Tominari, T. 1981. Wild Flowers of Japan. II. Heibonsha Ltd., Pub., Tokyo (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  22. Schwaegerle, K.E., Garbutt, K. andBazzaz F.A. 1986. Differentiation among nine populations ofPhlox. I. Electrophoretic and quantitative variation. Evolution40: 506–517.Google Scholar
  23. Schwaegerle, K.E. andLevin, D.A. 1990. Environmental effects on growth and fruit production inPhlox drumondii. J. Ecol.78: 15–26.Google Scholar
  24. Shaver, G.R., Fecher, N. andChapin, F.S. III 1986. Growth and flowering inEriophorum vaginatum annual and latitudinal variation. Ecology67: 1524–1535.Google Scholar
  25. Silander, J.A. andAntonovics, J. 1979. The genetic basis of the ecological amplitude ofSpartina patens. I. Morphological and physiological traits. Evolution33: 1114–1127.Google Scholar
  26. Sokal, R.R. andRohlf, F.J. 1981. Biometry. 2nd Edition. W.H. Freeman and Co. New York.Google Scholar
  27. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). 1991. Climatic table of Japan. II. Monthly normal by station. JMA (in press).Google Scholar
  28. Thompson, P.A. 1981. Variations in seed size within populations ofSilene dioica (L.) Clairv. in relation to habitat. Ann. Bot.47: 623–634.Google Scholar
  29. Van Tienderen, P.H. 1990. Morphological variation inPlantago lanceolata: limits of plasticity. Evol. Trends Pl.4: 35–43.Google Scholar
  30. Werner, P.A. 1976. Ecology of plant populations in successional environments. Syst. Bot.1: 246–268.Google Scholar
  31. Wilkinson, L. 1987. SYSTAT: The System for Statistics. SYSTAT Inc. Evanston, IL.Google Scholar
  32. Wyatt, R. andAntonovics, J. 1981. Butterflyweed rerevisited: spatial and temporal patterns of leaf shape variation inAsclepias tuberosa. Evolution35: 529–542.Google Scholar
  33. Yamazaki, K. andMasuzawa, T. 1985. Environmental adaptation of herbaceous species growing around the timberline of Mt. Fuji. II. Life-history ofArabis serrata.In Y. Yokoi, ed., Research Report to Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan (Grant in aid No. 59340038), pp. 37–40. Faculty of Science, Ibaragi University, Japan.Google Scholar
  34. Zar, J.H. 1974. Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ken Oyama
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Botany, Faculty of ScienceKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations