Proton pumps of the vacuolar membrane in growing plant cells
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Plant growth results from the division, enlargement and specialization of cells. The two processes of the enlargement and the differentiation of cells are not spatially separated in plant tissue. We focus our attention here on the enlargement and elongation of cells. In most cases, growing plant cells contain a large central vacuole. The acid growth theory is based on the space-filling function of the large vacuole. The active transport systems in the vacuolar membrane are essential for maintenance of high osmotic pressure and for the expansion of the vacuole. The secondary active transport systems of the vacuole for sugars and ions are driven by the proton-motive force which is generated by the vacuolar H+-ATPase and H+-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase. In this review, the relationship between cell elongation and these enzymes of the vacuolar membrane is emphasized.
Key wordsCell elongation H+-ATPase H+-Pyrophosphatase Proton pump Vacuole Vigna radiata Water channel
proton-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase
tonoplast intrinsic protein
an integral membrane protein of the radish vacuole with a molecular mass of 23 kD.
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