Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 108, Issue 4, pp 443–450 | Cite as

Dioecy in the endemic genusDendrocacalia (Compositae) on the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands

  • Makoto Kato
  • Hidetoshi Nagamasu
Original Articles


Dendrocacalia crepidifolia Nakai (Compositae, Senecioneae), the only species of this arboreal genus endemic to Haha Island in the Bonin Islands, was found to be dioecious. Male flowers differ from female ones in having a stunted style (style in female exserted from corolla and deeply bifurcating) and anthers filled with fertile pollen (anthers in the female lacking pollen). The size of the corolla and number of florets per head were similar between male and female flowers. The crown area of this arboreal species was also similar in male and female plants. The sex ratio was 0.55 male, not significantly different from 0.5. Both sexes produced nectar of similar sugar concentration (ca. 50%). The flowers are pollinated by feral honeybees (Apis mellifera), but they are thought to have been pollinated by small, lesshairy, endemic solitary bees before honeybees were introduced and subsequently became the dominant bee species on the island. The evolution of dioecy ofDendrocacalia on the island is thought to stem from the deleterious effects of inbreeding that are inherent in plants with geitonogamy. The increased geitonogamy on the island has resulted from increased woodiness (i.e., increased number of flowers per plant) and the original dependence on endemic bee pollinators, which are now endangered.

Key words

Bonin Islands Compositae Dendrocacalia Dioecy Feral honeybee 


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Copyright information

© Botanical Society of Japan 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Makoto Kato
    • 1
  • Hidetoshi Nagamasu
    • 1
  1. 1.Biological Laboratory, Yoshida CollegeKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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