Advertisement

Use of the force-velocity test to determine the optimal braking force for a sprint exercise on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer

  • M. -T. Linossier
  • D. Dormois
  • R. Fouquet
  • A. Geyssant
  • C. Denis
Original Article

Abstract

A group of 15 untrained male subjects pedalled on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer as fast as possible for 5–7 s to reach the maximal velocity (V{immax}) against different braking forces (FB). Power was averaged during a complete crank rotation by adding the power dissipated againstFB to the power necessary to accelerate the flywheel. For each sprint, determinations were made of peak power output (\(\dot W_{peak}\)) power output attained atVmax (\(\dot W_{vmax}\)) calculated as the product ofVmax andFB and the work performed to reachVmax expressed in mean power output (\(\bar \dot W_{vmax}\)). The relationships between these parameters andFB were examined. A biopsy taken from the vastus lateralis muscle and tomodensitometric radiographs of both thighs were taken at rest to identify muscle metabolic and morphometric properties. The\(\dot W_{peak}\) value was similar for allFB. Therefore, the average of values was defined as corrected maximal power (\(\dot W_{max}\)). This value was 11 higher than the maximal power output uncorrected for the acceleration. Whereas the\(\dot W_{max}\) determination did not require high loads, the highest\(\bar \dot W_{vmax}\) value (\(\bar \dot W_{max}\)) was produced when loading was heavy, as evidenced by the\(\bar \dot W_{vmax}\)-FB parabolic relationship. For each subject, the braking force (\(F_{B,\bar \dot W_{max} }\)) giving\(\bar \dot W_{max}\) was defined as optimal. The\(F_{B,\bar \dot W_{max} }\), equal to 0.844 (SD 0.108) N · kg−1 bodymass, was related to thigh muscle area (r = 0.78,P < 0.05). The maximal velocity (\(\upsilon _{m,\bar \dot W_{\max } }\)) reached against this force seemed to be related more to intrinsic fibre properties (% fast twitch b fibre area and adenylate kinase activity). Thus, from the\(\dot W_{max}\) determination, it is suggested that it should be possible to predict the conditions for optimal exercise on a cycle ergometer.

Key words

Force-velocity test Maximal power Human Muscle fibre Sprint ability 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andersen P (1975) Capillary density in skeletal muscle of man. Acta Physiol Scand 95:203–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bottinelli R, Schiaffino S, Reggiani C (1991) Force-velocity relations and myosin heavy chain isoform compositions of skinned fibres from rat skeletal muscle. J Physiol (Lond) 437:655–672Google Scholar
  3. Brooke MH, Kaiser KK (1970) Three “myosin ATPase” systems: the nature of their pH ]ability and sulfhydryl dependence. J Histochem Cytochem 18:670–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Denis C, Linossier MT, Dormois D, Padilla S, Geyssant A, Lacour JR, Inbar O (1992) Power and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise in 100-m and 800-m runners. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2:62–69Google Scholar
  5. Dotan R, Bar-Or O (1983) Load optimization for the Wingate anaerobic test. Eur J Appl Physiol 51:409–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Evans JA, Quinney HA (1981) Determination of resistance settings for anaerobic power testing. Can J Appl Sport Sci 6:53–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Fouquet R, Belli A, Jay J, Dumas JC, Denis C, Louis P, Bonnefoy R, Rougny R (1993) Système de mesure et d'exploitation de la puissance développée sur cycloergomètre. Innovat Technol Biol Méd 14:709–717Google Scholar
  8. Gaitanos GC, Williams C, Boobis LH, Brooks S (1993) Human muscle metabolism during intermittent maximal exercise. J Appl Physiol 75:712–719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Häkkinen K, Komi PV, Alén M (1985) Effect of explosive type strength training on isometric force- and relaxation-time, electromyographic and muscle fibre characteristics of leg extensor muscles. Acta Physiol Scand 125:587–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hirvonen J, Rehunen S, Rusko H, Härkönen M (1987) Breakdown of high-energy phosphate compounds and lactate accumulation during short supramaximal exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 56:253–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Inbar O, Kaiser P, Tesch P (1981) Relationships between leg muscle fiber type distribution and leg exercise performance. Int J Sports Medicine 2:154–159Google Scholar
  12. Jacobs I, Tesch PA, Bar-Or O, Karlsson J, Dotan R (1983) Lactate in human skeletal muscle after 10 and 30 s of supramaximal exercise. J Appl Physiol 55:365–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Lakomy HKA (1986) Measurement of work and power output using friction-loaded cycle ergometers. Ergonomics 29:509–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lakomy HKA (1988) Measurement of external power output during high intensity exercise. Thesis, University of Technology, LoughboroughGoogle Scholar
  15. Larsson L, Moss RL (1993) Maximum velocity of shortening in relation to myosin isoform composition in single fibres from human skeletal muscles. J Physiol (Lond) 472:595–614Google Scholar
  16. Linossier MT, Denis C, Dormois D, Geyssant A, Lacour JR (1993) Ergometric and metabolic adaptation to a 5-s sprint training programme. Eur J Appl Physiol 67:408–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McCartney N, Heigenhauser GJF, Jones NL (1983) Power output and fatigue of human muscle in maximal cycling exercise. J Appl Physiol 55:218–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Mercier J, Mercier B, Préfaut C (1991) Blood lactate increase during the force-velocity exercise test. Int J Sports Med 12:17–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Mero A, Luhtanen P, Viitasalo JT, Komi PV (1981) Relationships between the maximal running velocity, muscle fiber characteristics, force production and force relaxation of sprinters. Scand J Sports Sci 3:16–22Google Scholar
  20. Oliver IT (1955) A spectrophotometric method for the determination of creatine phosphokinase and myokinase. Biochem J 61:116–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Patton JF, Murphy MM, Frederick FA (1985) Maximal power outputs during the Wingate anaerobic test. Int J Sports Med 6:82–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Sargeant AJ (1994) Human power output and muscle fatigue. Int J Sports Med 15:116–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Sargeant AJ, Hoinville E, Young A (1981) Maximum leg force and power output during short-term dynamic exercise. J Appl Physiol 51:1175–1182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Sargeant AJ, Dolan P, Young A (1984) Optimal velocity for maximal short-term (anaerobic) power output in cycling. Int J Sports Med 5:124–125Google Scholar
  25. Schantz P, Randall-Fox E, Hutchison W, Tyden A, Astrand PO (1983) Muscle fibre type distribution, muscle cross-sectional area and maximal voluntary strength in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 117:219–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Seek D, Vandewalle H, Decrops N, Monod H (1995) Maximal power and torque-velocity relationship on a cycle ergometer during the acceleration phase of a single all-out exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 70:161–168Google Scholar
  27. Simoneau JA, Lortie G, Boulay MR, Marcotte M, Thibault MC, Bouchard C (1987) Effects of two high-intensity intermittent training programs interspaced by detraining on human skeletal muscle and performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 56:516–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Vandewalle H, Pérès G, Heller J, Monod H (1985) All out anaerobic capacity tests on cycle ergometers. Eur J Appl Physiol 54:222–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vandewalle H, Pérès G, Heller J, Panel J, Monod H (1987) Forcevelocity relationship and maximal power on a cycle ergometer. Eur J Appl Physiol 56:650–656Google Scholar
  30. Wilson GJ, Newton RU, Murphy AJ, Humphries BJ (1993) The optimal training load for the development of dynamic athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 25:1279–1286PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. -T. Linossier
    • 3
  • D. Dormois
    • 1
  • R. Fouquet
    • 2
  • A. Geyssant
    • 1
  • C. Denis
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Physiologie, GIP ExerciseFaculté de Médecine Saint-EtienneSaint-Etienne Cedex 2France
  2. 2.Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, UA-CNRS-842Faculté de Sciences de Saint-EtienneSaint-Etienne Cedex 2France
  3. 3.C.H.U. de Saint-EtienneSaint-Etienne Cedex 2France

Personalised recommendations