Blood flow in the emissary veins of the human head during hyperthermia

  • M. Cabanac
  • H. Brinnel
Article

Summary

The direction of the blood flowing in the emissary veins (vena emissaria mastoidea and v. e. partietalis) was recorded in human subjects during moderate hyperthermia and hypothermia. During hyperthermia the blood flowed rapidly from skin to brain. During hypothermia either no flow could be detected or the blood flowed slowly from brain to skin. On two fresh cadavers the calvaria was removed with the scalp adhering. Gentle massaging of the scalp produced abundant drops of blood on the inner surface of the bone each time the scalp was massaged, thus showing that cutaneous blood can flow inward through the bone. These results support the hypothesis of selective brain cooling in hyperthermic humans by offering a possible mechanism.

Key words

Venous blood flow Temperature regulation Emissary veins Brain cooling 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baker MA (1982) Brain cooling in endotherms in heat and exercise. Ann Rev Physiol 44:85–96Google Scholar
  2. Baker M, Hayward JN (1967) Carotid nete and brain temperature of cat. Nature 216:139–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Benzinger TH (1959) On physical heat regulation and the sense of temperature in man. Proc Natl Acad Sci [USA] 45:645–659Google Scholar
  4. Benzinger TH (1960) The sensory receptor organ and quantitative mechanism of human temperature control in warm environment. Fed Proc [Suppl 4] 19:32–41Google Scholar
  5. Cabanac M (1983) Face fanning: a possible way to prevent or cure brain hyperthermia In: Khogali M, Hales JRS (eds) Heat stroke and temperature regulation. Academic Press, Sydney, pp 213–221Google Scholar
  6. Cabanac M, Caputa M (1979) Open loop increase in trunk temperature produced by face cooling in working humans. J Physiol [Lond] 289:163–174Google Scholar
  7. Cabanac M, Brinnel H, Mallet C (1984) La calvitie est-elle un processus thermorégulateur adaptatif? CR Acad Sci 299 III:499–502Google Scholar
  8. Caputa M (1980) Selective brain cooling, an important component of thermal physiology. Contributions to thermal physiology. Z Szelenyi and Szekely M (eds.). Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 183–192Google Scholar
  9. Caputa M, Cabanac M (1980) Muscular work as thermal behavior in humans. J Appl Physiol 48:1020–1023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Caputa M, Perrin G, Cabanac M (1978) Ecoulement sanguin réversible dans la veine ophthalmique: mécanisme de refroidissement sélectif du cerveau humain. C R Acad Sci 287 D:1011–1014Google Scholar
  11. Greenleaf JR, Van Beaumont W, Brock PJ, Montgomery LD, Morse JT, Schvartz E, Kravik S (1980) Fluid-electrolyte shifts and thermoregulation: Rest and work in heat with head cooling. Aviat Space Environ Med 51:747–753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hawkins RC (1975) Human temperature regulation and the perception of comfort. Ph D Thesis University of PennsylvaniaGoogle Scholar
  13. Kissen AT, Buehring WJ, O'Donnell RD, Summers WC, Smedley DC (1974) Evaluation of water-cooled helmet liner. Report AMRL TR-74-135, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  14. Kissen AT, Hall JF, Klemm FK (1971) Physiological responses to cooling the head and neck versus the trunk and leg areas in severe hyperthermic exposure. Aerospace Med 42:882–888Google Scholar
  15. Kratzing CC, Cross RB (1984) Effects of facial cooling during exercise at high temperature. Eur J Appl Physiol 53:118–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lind AR (1983) Pathophysiology of heat exhaustion and heat stroke. In: Khogali M, Hales JRS (eds) Heat stroke and temperature regulation. Academic Press, Sydney, pp 179–188Google Scholar
  17. Magilton JH, Swift CS (1968) Description of two physiological heat exchange systems for the control of brain temperature. IEEE Conf record. 5e and Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symp, 24–27Google Scholar
  18. Marcus P (1973) Some effects of cooling and heating areas of the head and neck on body temperature measurement at the ear. Aerospace Med 44:397–402Google Scholar
  19. Mc Caffrey TV, Mc Cook RD, Wurster RD (1975) Effect of head skin temperature on tympanic and oral temperature in man. J Appl Physiol 39:114–118Google Scholar
  20. Poirier R, Charpy A (1902) Traité d'anatomie humaine II. Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  21. Rubinstein E, Mead TW, Eldridge F (1960) Common carotid blood temperature. J Appl Physiol 29:36–39Google Scholar
  22. Williams BA, Shitzer A (1974) Modular liquid-cooled helmet liner for thermal comfort. Aerospace Med 45:1030–1036Google Scholar
  23. Wurster R (1968) Influence of head skin temperature on tympanic membrane and oral temperatures. Pflügers Arch 300:R47Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cabanac
    • 1
  • H. Brinnel
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Physiologie associé au C.N.R.S. Nℴ 180Université Claude Bernard, C.H.U.OullinsFrance

Personalised recommendations