Advertisement

Netherland Journal of Aquatic Ecology

, Volume 28, Issue 3–4, pp 383–395 | Cite as

The role of suspended matter in the distribution of dissolved inorganic phosphate, iron and aluminium in the Ems estuary

  • J. E. E. Van Beusekom
  • V. N. de Jonge
Particles as Carriers

Abstract

In winter 1992/1993, a persistent local maximum in fluorescence, dissolved iron, dissolved aluminium and dissolved inorganic phosphate was found, upstream of the turbidity maximum in the freshwater zone of the Ems estuary (The Netherlands — Federal Republic Germany; western Europe). Upstream of this local maximum values ranged from 6 to 9 rel. units fluorescence, 0.9 to 2.4 μmol dm−3 iron, 0.5 to 0.7 μmol dm−3 aluminium and 0.6 to 2.3 μmol dm−3 dissolved inorganic phosphate. Within the maximum peak values of 24 rel. units fluorescence, 5.8 μmol dm−3 iron, 1.4 μmol dm−3 aluminium and 8.3 μmol dm−3 dissolved inorganic phosphate were observed. Downstream, fluorescence (indicator of dissolved organic carbon) showed conservative mixing with sea water, whereas dissolved iron, aluminium and dissolved inorganic phosphate did not. Dissolved aluminium and iron were quickly removed from solution to reach values of ∼100 nmol dm−3 aluminium and ∼0.3 μmol·dm−3 Fe at salinities of approximately 7 PSU. Further seaward iron concentrations gradually decreased to levels below 0.04 μmol dm−3. Dissolved aluminium first decreased to ∼20 nmol dm−3 at 29 PSU and increased again to concentrations of 30–44 nmol dm−3 at higher salinities. Dissolved inorganic phosphate, however, first decreased to upstream concentrations before reaching a secondary peak in the mid-estuarine reaches. At salinities >25 PSU dissolved inorganic phosphate mixed conservatively with sea water. It is hypothesized that adsorption-desorption equilibria are responsible for the local maximum values of fluorescence (DOC), iron, aluminium and dissolved inorganic phosphate. The similarity between the observed curves suggests a common underlying process, possibly related to the adjustment of new equilibria between suspended matter of marine and riverine origin.

Keywords

Ems estuary phosphorus iron fluorescence aluminium adsorption suspended matter 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. BAUERFEIND, E., W. HICKEL, U. NIERMANN and H.V. WESTERNHAGEN, 1990. Phytoplankton biomass and potential nutrient limitation of phytoplankton development in the southeastern North Sea in spring 1985 and 1986. Neth. J. Sea. Res., 25: 131–142.Google Scholar
  2. BOERS, P.C.M., Th.E. CAPPENBERG and W. VAN RAAPHORST, 1993. The third international workshop on phosphorus in sediments: summary and synthesis. Hydrobiologia, 253: xi-xviii.Google Scholar
  3. BOYLE, E.A., J.M. EDMOND and E.R. SHOLKOVITZ, 1977. The mechanism of iron removal in estuaries Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41: 1313–1324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. CADÉE, G.C., 1986. Increased phytoplankton promary production in the Marsdiep area (Western Dutch Wadden Sea). Neth. J. Sea Res., 20: 285–290.Google Scholar
  5. CADÉE, G.C. and J. HEGEMAN, 1991. Phytoplankton primary production, chlorophyll and species composition, organic carbon and turbidity in the Marsdiep in 1990, compared with foregoing years. Hydrobiol. Bull., 25: 29–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. CADÉE, G.C. and J. HEGEMAN, 1993. Persisting high levels of primary production at declining phosphate concentrations in the Dutch coastal area (Marsdiep). Neth. J. Sea Res., 31: 147–152.Google Scholar
  7. CADÉE, G.C., and R.W.P.M. LAANE, 1983. Behaviour of POC, DOC and Fluorescence in the freshwater compartiment of the river Ems. In: E.T. Degens, S. Kempe and H. Soliman, Eds., Transport of Carbon and Minerals in Major World Rivers, Part 2, Mitt. Geol-Paläontol. Inst. Univ. Hamburg, 55: 331–342.Google Scholar
  8. DE JONGE, V.N., 1983. Relations between annual dredging activities, suspended matter concentrations and the development of the tidal range in the Ems estuary. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40 (suppl. 1): 289–300.Google Scholar
  9. DE JONGE, V.N., 1988. The Abiotic Environment 14–27. In: J.W. BARETTA and P. RUARDIJ, Eds. Tidal flat estuaries: Simulation and Analysis of the Ems Estuary. Ecological Studies 71. Springer Verlag. 353 pp.Google Scholar
  10. DE JONGE, V.N., 1990. Response of the Dutch Wadden Sea ecosystem to phosphorus discharges from the River Rhine. Hydrobiologia, 195: 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. DE JONGE, V.N., 1992: Tidal flow and residual flow in the Ems estuary. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci., 34: 1–22.Google Scholar
  12. DE JONGE, V.N. and M.M. ENGELKES. 1993. The role of mineral compounds and chemical conditions in the binding of phosphate in the Ems estuary. Neth. J. Aquat. Ecol. 27: 227–236.Google Scholar
  13. DE JONGE, V.N., M.M. ENGELKES and J.F. BAKKER, 1993. Bio-availability of phosphorus compounds in sediments of the western Dutch Wadden Sea. Hydrobiologia, 253: 151–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DE JONGE, V.N. and K. ESSINK, 1991. Long-term changes in nutrient loads and primary and secondary production in the Dutch Wadden Sea. — In: M. Elliott and J.-P. Ducrotoy, Eds. Estuaries and Coasts: Spatial and Temporal Intercomparisons, ECSA 19 Symposium, Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg, Denmark, 307–316.Google Scholar
  15. DE JONGE, V.N. and L.A. VILLERIUS, 1989. Possible role of carbonate dissolution in estuarine phosphate dynamics. Limnol. Oceanogr., 34: 332–340.Google Scholar
  16. EISMA, D., P. BERNARD, J.J. BOON, R. VAN GRIEKEN, J. KALF and G.W. MOOK 1985. Loss of particulate organic matter in estuaries as examplified by the Ems and Gironde estuaries. In: E.T. Degens, S. Kempe and R. Herrera, Eds., Transport of Carbon and Minerals in Major World Rivers, Part 3, Mitt. Geol-Paläontol. Inst. Univ. Hamburg. 58 397–412.Google Scholar
  17. FOX, L.E., 1988. The solubility of colloidal ferric hydroxide and its relevance to iron concentrations in river water. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 52: 771–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. FOX, L.E., 1989. A model for inorganic control of phosphate concentrations in river waters. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 53: 417–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. FOX, L.E., 1993. The chemistry of aquatic phosphate: inorganic processes in rivers. Hydrobiologia, 253: 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. GRASSHOFF, K., M. EHRHARDT and K. KREMLING, 1983. Methods of seawater analysis. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, 419 pp.Google Scholar
  21. HICKEL, W., J. BERG and K. TREUTNER, 1992. Variability in phytoplankton biomass in the German Bight near Helgoland, 1980–1990. ICES Mar. Sci. Symp. 195: 247–257.Google Scholar
  22. HYDES, D.J., and P.S. LISS, 1976. Fluorimetric method for the determination of low concentrations of dissolved aluminium in natural waters. Analyst 101: 922–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. MACKINNON, M.D., 1981. The measurement of organic carbon in sea water. In: E.K. Duursma and K.R. Dawson, Eds. Marine Organic Chemistry, Elsevier Oceanography Series 31, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 415–443.Google Scholar
  24. MACKIN, J.E. and R.C. ALLER, 1989. The nearshore marine and estuarine chemistry of dissolved aluminium and rapid authigenic mineral precipitation. Rev. Aquat. Sci. 1: 537–554.Google Scholar
  25. MORRIS, A.W., R.J.M. HOWLAND and A.J. BALE, 1986. Dissolved aluminium in the Tamar estuary. southwest England. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 50: 189–197.Google Scholar
  26. MURPHY, J. and J.P. RILEY, 1962. A modified single-solution method for determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal. Chim. Acta, 27: 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. PEETERS, K.C.H. and L. PEPERZAK 1990. Nutrient limitation in the North Sea: A bioassay approach. Neth. J. Sea Res 26: 61–73.Google Scholar
  28. POSTMA, H., 1981. Exchange of materials between the North Sea and the Wadden Sea. Mar. Geol. 40: 199–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. POSTMA, H. and K. KALLE, 1955. Die Enfstehung von Trübungszonen im Unterlauf der Flüsse, speziell im Hinblick auf die Verhältnisse in der Unterelbe. Deutsche Hydrogr. Z. 8: 137–144.Google Scholar
  30. RIEGMAN, R., F. COLIJN, J.F.P. MALSCHAERT, H.T. KLOOSTERHUIS and G.C. CADÉE, 1990. Assessment of growth rate limiting nutrients in the North Sea by the use of nutrient uptake kinetics. Neth. J. Sea Res 26: 53–60.Google Scholar
  31. SALOMONS, W., 1973. Chemical and isolopic composition of carbonates during an erosion-sedimentation cycle. Thesis, Univ. Groningen. 118 pp.Google Scholar
  32. SINGH, S.K. and V. SUBRAMANIAN, 1984. Hydrous Fe and Mn oxides-scavengers of heavy metals in the aquatic environment. CRC Crit. Rev. Env. Contr. 14: 33–90.Google Scholar
  33. SMAYDA, T.J., 1990. Novel and nuisance phytoplankton blooms in the sea: evidence for a global epidemic. p. 29–40. In: E. Granéli, B. Sundström, L. Edler and D.M. Anderson, Eds., Toxic marine phytoplankton. Proceed. 4th intern. Conf. June 26–30, 1989. Lund, Sweden. Elsevier BV, Amsterdam, 554 pp.Google Scholar
  34. STOOKEY, L.L., 1970. Ferrozine: a new spectrophotometric reagent for iron. Anal. Chem., 42: 779–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. VAN BENNEKOM, A.J. and F.J. WETSTEIJN, 1990. The winter distribution of nutrients in the Southern Bight of the North Sea (1961–1978) and in the estuaries of the Scheldt and the Rhine/Meuse. Neth. J. Sea Res., 25: 75–87.Google Scholar
  36. VAN BEUSEKOM, J.E.E., 1988. Distribution of dissolved aluminium in the North Sea: Influence of suspended matter. In: S. Kempe, G. Liebezeit and U. Harms, Eds., ‘Biogeochemistry and Distribution of Suspended Matter in the North Sea and Implications to Fisheries Biology’. Mitt. Geol-Paläont. Inst. Univ. Hamburg. SCOPE/UNEP Sonderbd. 65: 117–136.Google Scholar
  37. VAN ES, F.B. 1982. Some aspects of the flow of oxygen and organic carbon in the Ems-Dollard estuary. Thesis Univ. Groningen 121 pp.Google Scholar
  38. VELDHUIS, M.J.W., W. ADMIRAAL and F. COLIJN, 1986. Chemical and physiological changes of phytoplankton during the spring bloom, dominated byPhaeocystis pouchetii (Haptophyceae): observations in Dutch coastal waters of the North Sea. Neth. J. Sea Res. 20: 49–60.Google Scholar
  39. WEBB, K.L., 1981. Conceptual models and processes of nutrient cycling in estuaries. In: B.J. Neilson and L.E. Cronin, Eds., Estuaries and nutrients. Humana press. Clifton, New Jersey, 25–46.Google Scholar
  40. WELLERSHAUS, S., 1981. Turbidity maximum and mud shoaling in the Wesser Estuary. Arch. Hydrobiol. 92: 161–198.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. E. Van Beusekom
    • 1
  • V. N. de Jonge
    • 2
  1. 1.Biologische Anstalt HelgolandHamburgFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management/RIKZHaren (GN)The Netherlands

Personalised recommendations