Toxicity to fathead minnows of endrin in food and water

  • Alfred W. Jarvinen
  • Robert M. Tyo
Article

Abstract

Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed during a partial chronic toxicity study to endrin concentrations in the water or food, or both, for 300 days encompassing reproduction. Tissue residues were analyzed at preset intervals for first-generation fish, and were also determined for embryos, larvae at hatch, and 30-day progeny. Gas-chromatographic and liquid-scintillation techniques were used to monitor the contribution of endrin from each source. The food was clams that had accumulated 14C-endrin when exposed to an endrin water concentration similar to that to which the fish were exposed.

Higher endrin tissue residues were accumulated from the water than from food. Maximum concentration factors were 0.8 from the food and 13,000 from the water. Residues contributed by endrin in the food were additive to those from the water at all life stages. Endrin in the food (0.63 ppm) significantly reduced survival of the fathead minnows, and fish exposed to both endrin sources had lower survival than those exposed to either source alone. Endrin residues in embryos and larvae were highest and larval survival lowest for progeny of adults exposed to endrin in both food and water. Survival of 30-day progeny was significantly reduced at all test exposures (0.63 ppm in the food, water exposures of 0.14 and 0.25 ppb, and all combinations of food and water exposure).

Keywords

Toxicity Maximum Concentration Water Concentration Life Stage Concentration Factor 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, andWater Pollution Control Federation: Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 13th ed. Washington, D.C. (1971).Google Scholar
  2. Argyle, R. L., G. C. Williams, and H. K. Dupree: Endrin uptake and release by fingerling channel catfish,Ictalurus punctatus. J. Fish Res. Board Can.30, 1743 (1973).Google Scholar
  3. Chadwick, G. G., and R. W. Brocksen: Accumulation of dieldrin by fish and selected fish-food organisms. J. Wildl. Manage.33, 693 (1969).Google Scholar
  4. Eberhardt, L. L., R. L. Meeks, and T. J. Peterle: Food chain model for DDT kinetics in a freshwater marsh. Nature (Great Britain)230, 60 (1971).Google Scholar
  5. Epifanio, C. E.: Dieldrin uptake by larvae of the crab,Leptodius floridanus. Marine Biol. (West Germany)19, 320 (1973).Google Scholar
  6. Finley, M. T., D. E. Ferguson, and J. L. Ludke: Possible selective mechanisms in the development of insecticide-resistant fish. Pest. Mon. J.3, 212 (1970).Google Scholar
  7. Grzenda, A. R., D. F. Paris, and W. J. Taylor: The uptake, metabolism, and elimination of chlorinated residues by goldfish,Carassius auratus, fed a 14C-DDT contaminated diet. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.99, 385 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hamelink, J. L., R. C. Waybrant, and R. C. Ball: A proposal: Exchange equilibria control the degree chlorinated hydrocarbons are biologically magnified in the lentic environments. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.100, 207 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Harrison, H. L., O. L. Loacks, J. W. Mitchill, D. F. Parkhurst, C. R. Tracy, D. G. Watts, and V. J. Yannacone, Jr.: Systems studies of DDT transport. Science170, 503 (1970).Google Scholar
  10. Henderson, C., Q. H. Pickering, and C. M. Tarzwell: Relative toxicity of ten chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides to four species of fish. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.88, 23 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hermanutz, R. O.: Endrin and malathion toxicify to flagfish,Jordanella floridae. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.7, in press (1978).Google Scholar
  12. Holden, A. V.: Effects of pesticides on fish. In C. Edwards (ed.): Environmental pollution by pesticides, p. 213. New York: Plenum Press (1973).Google Scholar
  13. Jackson, G. A.: Biologic half-life of endrin in channel catfish tissues. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.16, 505 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jarvinen, A. W., M. J. Hoffman, and T. W. Thorslund: Toxicity of DDT food and water exposure to fathead minnows.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, Minn. Publication EPA-600/3-76-114 (1976).Google Scholar
  15. Jensen, L. D., and A. R. Gaufin: Acute and long-term effects of organic insecticides on two species of stonefly naiads. J. Water Poll. Cont. Fed.3, 1273 (1966).Google Scholar
  16. Johnson, H. E.: The effects of endrin on the reproduction of a freshwater fish,Oryzias latipes. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Washington, Seattle, Wash. (1967).Google Scholar
  17. Johnson, T. B., R. C. Saunders, H. O. Sanders, and R. S. Campbell: Biological magnification and degradation of DDT and aldrin by freshwater invertebrates. J. Fish. Res. Board Can.28, 705 (1971).Google Scholar
  18. Macek, K. J., and S. Korn: Significance of the food chain in DDT accumulation by fish. J. Fish. Res. Board Can.27, 1496 (1970).Google Scholar
  19. McKim, J. M.: The use of embryo-larval, early juvenile toxicity tests with fish for estimating longterm toxicity. J. Fish. Res. Board Can.34, 1148 (1977).Google Scholar
  20. Mount, D. I.: Chronic effects of endrin on bluntnose minnows and guppies.U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Res. Rept.58, 1 (1962).Google Scholar
  21. Mount, D. I., and W. A. Brungs: A simplified dosing apparatus for fish toxicology studies. Water Res.1, 21 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mount, D. I., and G. J. Putnicki: Summary report of the 1963 Mississippi fish kill. Trans. 31st No. Amer. Wildl. and Nat. Res. Conf. p. 177 (1966).Google Scholar
  23. Murphy, P. G.: The effect of size on the uptake of DDT from water by fish. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.33, 693 (1971).Google Scholar
  24. Petrocelli, S. R., J. W. Anderson, and A. R. Hanks: Biomagnification of dieldrin residues by food chain transfer from clams to blue crabs under controlled conditions. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.13, 108 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Reinert, R. E.: The accumulation of dieldrin in an alga,Scenedesmus obliquus, daphnia,Daphnia magna, guppy,Lebistes reticulatus, food chain. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. (1967).Google Scholar
  26. Reinert, R. E.: Pesticide concentrations in Great Lakes fish. Pest. Mon. J.3, 233 (1970).Google Scholar
  27. Steel, R. G. D., and J. H. Torrie: Principles and procedures of statistics. New York: McGraw-Hill Book (1960).Google Scholar
  28. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare: Pesticide Analytical Manual. Vol. 1.Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. (1971).Google Scholar
  29. Veith, G. D., and V. M. Comstock: Apparatus for continuously saturating water with hydrophobic organic chemicals. J. Fish. Res. Board Can.32, 1849 (1975).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfred W. Jarvinen
    • 1
  • Robert M. Tyo
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Research Laboratory-DuluthU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyDuluth

Personalised recommendations