The effects of a simulated refinery effluent on the grass shrimp,Palaemonetes pugio

  • Lenwood W. HallJr.
  • Arthur L. BuikemaJr.
  • John CairnsJr.


Duplicate static bioassays were conducted using a simulated refinery effluent on the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio, Hippolyte sp.) with the LC-50 values recorded at 4-, 8-, 24-, 48-, and 96-hr intervals. The simulated refinery effluent contained phenol (0.10 mg/L), sulfide (0.17 mg/L), chromium (0.25 mg/L), ammonia (10 mg/L), No. 2 fuel oil (10 mg/L), and kaolinite (20 mg/L). This arbitrary reference mixture (ARM) contains approximately the concentration of compounds recommended by EPA for 1977. Of the six ARM components, No. 2 fuel oil was the most toxic followed in decreasing order by sulfide, ammonia, phenol, chromium, and kaolinite. Temperature was the most important environmental variable affecting short term toxicity of the ARM to the grass shrimp. Light intensity, photo-period, and salinity had no significant effect. There was no difference in sensitivity of grass shrimp collected from five locations along the gulf and eastern coasts of the United States. Similarly, there was no difference in the response of two grass shrimp genera,Palaemonetes andHippolyte to the ARM and there were no differences among the three species ofPalaemonetes tested. In comparing the sensitivities of the two genera of grass shrimp and the pinfish (Lagodon rhombroides) to the ARM, the grass shrimp were more sensitive.


Ammonia Toxicity Sulfide Phenol Chromium 


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Literature cited

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lenwood W. HallJr.
    • 1
  • Arthur L. BuikemaJr.
    • 1
  • John CairnsJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology and Center for Environmental StudiesVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburg

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