Advertisement

International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 25–38 | Cite as

The effects of air ions on brain levels of serotonin in mice

  • A. P. Krueger
  • S. Kotaka
Article

Abstract

Mice were maintained in a controlled pollutant-free microenvironment and were exposed for 12, 24, 48 and 72 hr to 3 different concentrations of small positive or negative air ions: 2–4 × 103 ions/cm3, 3–4 × 104 ions/cm3 or 3.5–5 × 105 ions/cm3. Spectrophotofluorometric assays of brain serotonin levels of air ion-treated mice showed statistically significant differences as early as 12 hours from those of mice kept in untreated pollutant-free air. Essentially no deviation from control values were observed at 24 and 48 hours. After 72 hours of exposure sharp decreases took place in all groups with the single exception of the animals exposed to 3–4 × 104 positive ions/cm3. The hypothesis that alterations in mood and affect associated with certain meteorological conditions, e.g. winds such as the foehn, sirocco, etc. might depend upon air ion-induced changes in brain levels of serotonin was examined in the light of recent advances in neurophysiology and neuropharmacology.

Keywords

Serotonin Serotonin Level Brain Level Single Exception Brain Serotonin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Zusammenfassung

Mäuse wurden in Kammern mit kontrolliertem verunreinigungsfreiem Kryptoklima 12, 24, 48 und 72 Stunden 3 verschiedenen Konzentrationen kleiner negativer und positiver Luftionen exponiert: 2–4 × 103; 3–4 × 104 und 3,5–5 × 105 Ionen/cm3. Die spektrofluorometrische Bestimmung des Serotonins im Gehirn der ionenbehandelten Mäuse zeigte bereits nach 12 Stunden statistisch signifikante Unterschiede beim Vergleich mit unbehandelten Kontrolltieren. Nach 24 und 48 Stunden Behandlung waren keine Unterschiede vorhanden. Nach 72 Stunden bestand in allen Gruppen, ausser in der mit 3–4 × 104 positiven Ionen behandelten Gruppe, ein starker Fall des Serotonins. Anhand dieser Ergebnisse und jüngster Erkenntnisse in der Neurophysiologie und Neuropharmakologie wird daraufhin die Hypothese geprüft, ob Veränderungen in der Stimmung und Erregung bei bestimmten meteorologischen Bedingungen, wie den Winden Föhn und Sirocco, von luftioneninduzierten Veränderungen des Serotoninspiegels im Gehirn abhängen.

Resume

On a placé des souris dans un microclimat contrôlé et exempt de pollutions. On les y a exposé durant 12, 24, 48 et 72 heures à 3 concentrations différentes de petits ions positifs ou négatifs, à savoir 2 à 4 × 103 ions/cm3, 3 à 4 × 104 ions/cm3 et 3, 5 à 5 × 105 ions/cm3. La teneur en sérotomine du cerveau, déterminée par procédé spectrophotofluorométrique a montré déjà après 12 heures des différences significatives chez les animaux traités par rapport à des témoins. Ces différences disparaissent avec un traitement de 24 ou 48 heures.Après 72 heures, on a constaté dans tous les groupes, sauf celui traité par de l'air contenant 3 à 4 × 104 ions positifs/cm3, une diminution importante de la sérotomine. Sur la base de ces résultats et de découvertes récentes en neuro-physiologie et en neuro-pharmacologie, on examine l'hypothèse si des modifications du degrés d'émotivité et d'irritabilité constatées par certaines situations météorologiques (foehn, sirocco par exemple) sont dues à des changements du taux d'ionisation de l'air qui entrafneraient une variation de la teneur en sérotomine du cerveau.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ALBRECHT, P., VISSCHER, M.B., BITTNER, J.J. and HALBERG, F. (1956): Daily changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine concentration in mouse brain. Proc.Soc.exp.Biol. (N.Y.), 92:703–706.Google Scholar
  2. BACHMAN, C.H., McDONALD, R.D. and LORENZ, C.J. (1966): Some effects of air ions on the activity of rats. Int.J.Biometeor., 10: 39–46.Google Scholar
  3. BARRON, E.I. and DREHER, J.J. (1963): The effects of electric fields and negative ion concentrations on test pilots. Aerospace Med., 35: 20–23.Google Scholar
  4. BERTHOLON, L'ABBE, P. (1780): De l'électricite du corps humain dans l'état de sante et de maladie. Bernuset, Lyon.Google Scholar
  5. BISA, K. and WEIDEMANN, J. (1955): Die Elektro-aerosole. Z.Aerosol-Forsch., 4: 220–228.Google Scholar
  6. BOGDANSKI, D.S. and UDENFRIEND, S. (1956): Serotonin and monoamine oxidase in brain. J.Pharmacol.exp.Ther., 116: 7 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  7. BONNEVIE, T. (1966): Paper presented at Fourth Congress of the International Society of Biometeorology. Rutgers University, August 26, 1966.Google Scholar
  8. BRODIE, B.B., PLETSCHER, A. and SHORE, P.A. (1955): Evidence that serotonin has role in brain function. Science, 122: 968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. BRODIE, B.B., PLETSCHER, A. and SHORE, P.A. (1956): Possible role of serotonin in brain function and in reserpine action. J. Pharmacol.exp.Ther., 116: 9 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  10. CARLSSON, A. (1964): Biogenic Amines. Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 8, H.E. Hinwich and W.A. Hinwich (ed.). Elsevier Publ. Comp., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  11. CHILES, W.D., FOX, R.E., RUSH, J.H. and STILSON, D.W. (1962): The effects of ionized air on decision making and vigilance performance. Technical Document Report No. MRL-TDR 62-51. Wright-Patterson Air Field.Google Scholar
  12. CZERMAK, P. (1901): Uber Elektrizitätszerstreuung bei Foehn. Anz.Akad. Wiss.Wien.Math.Naturw.Kl., 38: 310–315.Google Scholar
  13. DEMENT, W.C. (1969): A new look at the third state of existence. Stanf.M.D., 8: 2–8.Google Scholar
  14. DUFFEE, R.A. and KOONTZ, R.H. (1965): Behavioral effects of ionized air on rats. Psychophysiology, 1: 347–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. EICHMEIER, J. (1962): Der Bioklimatische Einfluss künstlich erzeugter Atmosphärischer Kleinionen auf das Respirogramm, Elektrokardiogramm und Elektroencephalogramm des Menschen. Dissertation, Technische Hochschule München.Google Scholar
  16. ELSTER, J. and GEITEL, H. (1899): Uber die Existenz elektrischer Ionen in der Atmosphaere. Terrestr.Magazin, 4: 38–43.Google Scholar
  17. FRIEDRICH, H. (1966): Erzeugung und Messung atmosphärischer Ionen für medizinische Untersuchungen und ihr Einfluss auf Reaktionszeit und Muskeleigenreflex des Menschen. Dissertation, Technische Hochschule München.Google Scholar
  18. FRITS, T., STRAUSS, H., ELGES, E. and DELEANU, M. (1963): The action of cholesterol and positive air ions on spontaneous motility. Igiena (Buc.), 12: 33–37.Google Scholar
  19. GARATTINI, S. and VALZELLI, L. (1965): Serotonin. Elsevier Publ.Comp., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  20. GUALTIEROTTI, R. (1964): Modificazioni del compartmento E della reattivita provocate nell' animale della aerionizzazione negativa. Gasseta Farmaceutica, Edizione Medici, 3: 112–134.Google Scholar
  21. HERRINGTON, L.P. and SMITH, K.L. (1935): The effect of high concentrations of light negative atmospheric ions on the growth and activity of the albino rat. J.Indust.Hyg., 17: 283–288.Google Scholar
  22. JORDAN, J. and SOKOLOFF, B. (1959): Air ionization, age, and maze learning of rats. J.Geront., 14: 344–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. JOUVET, MICHEL (1969): Biogenic amines and states of sleep. Science, 163: 32–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. KETY, S.S. (1968): Biochemistry and mental states. Calif.Med., 108:362–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. KIMURA, S., ASHIBA, M. and MATSUSHIMA, L. (1939): Influence of air lacking in light ions and the effect of its artificial ionization upon human beings in occupied rooms. Jap.J.Med.Sci., 7: 1–12.Google Scholar
  26. KNOLL, N., EICHMEIER, J. and SCHON, R.W. (1964): Properties, measurements, and bioclimatic action of small multimolecular atmospheric ions. Adv.Electr.Electron Phys., 19: 177–254.Google Scholar
  27. KOTAKA, S. and KRUEGER, A.P. (1967): Studies on the air-ion-induced growth increase in higher plants. Adv.Front.Plant Sci., 20: 115–208.Google Scholar
  28. KRUEGER, A.P., ANDRIESE, P.C. and KOTAKA, S. (1963): The biological mechanism of air ion action: the effect of CO2/+ in inhaled air on the blood level of 5-hydroxytryptamine in mice. Int.J.Biometeor., 7: 3–16.Google Scholar
  29. KRUEGER, A.P., ANDRIESE, P.C. and KOTAKA, S. (1966): The effects of inhaling nonionized or positively ionized air containing 2–4% CO2 on the blood levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine in mice. Int.J.Biometeor., 10: 17–28.Google Scholar
  30. KRUEGER, A.P., ANDRIESE, P.C. and KOTAKA, S. (1968): Small air ions: their effect on blood levels of serotonin in terms of modern physical theory. Int.J.Biometeor., 12: 225–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. KRUEGER, A.P., KOTAKA, S., NISHIZAWA, K., KOGURE, Y., TAKENOBU, M. and ANDRIESE, P.C. (1966): Air ion effects on the growth of the silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.). Int.J.Biometeor., 10: 29–38.Google Scholar
  32. KRUEGER, A.P. and SMITH, R.F. (1960a): The biological mechanisms of air ion action. I. 5-hydroxytryptamine as the endogenous mediator of positive air ion effects on the mammalian trachea. J.gen.Physiol., 43: 533–540.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. KRUEGER, A.P. and SMITH, R.F. (1960b): The biological mechanisms of air ion action. II. Negative air ion effects on the concentration and metabolism of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the mammalian respiratory tract. J.gen.Physiol., 44: 269–276.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. MANDELL, A.J. and SPOONER, C.E. (1968): Psychochemical research studies in man. Science, 162: 1442–1453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. McDONALD, R.E., BACHMAN, C.H. and LORENZ, P.J. (1967): Some psychomotor and physiological tests on humans exposed to air ions. Aerospace Med., 38: 145–148.Google Scholar
  36. ROBINSON, N. and DIRNFELD, F.S. (1963): The ionization state of the atmosphere as a function of the meteorological elements and of various sources of ions. Int.J.Biometeor., 6:101–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. SILVERMAN, D. and KORNBLUEH, I.H. (1957): The effect of artificial ionization of the air on the electro-encephalogram. Amer.J.phys. Med., 36: 352–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. SLOTE, L. (1962): An experimental evaluation of man's reaction to an ionized air environment. 1961. Proceedings of International Conference on Ionization of the Air. Sponsored by the American Institute of Climatology, Vol. II, XX: 1–22.Google Scholar
  39. STANLEY, C.L. (1952): Report to the Wesix Research Foundation. San Francisco.Google Scholar
  40. THOMSON, J.J. (1898): On the charge of electricity carried by the ions produced by Röntgen rays. Phil.Mag., 46: 528–545.Google Scholar
  41. UDENFRIEND, S., WEISSBACH, H. and CLARK, C.T. (1955): The estimation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) in biological tissues. J.biol.Chem., 215: 337–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. VON EULER, U.S. (1956):Noradrenaline. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© N.V. Swets & Zeitlinger 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. P. Krueger
    • 1
  • S. Kotaka
  1. 1.Medical Microbiology Unit and The Naval Biological Laboratory, School of Public HealthUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations