Experimental Mechanics

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 121–125 | Cite as

Load actions on the human femur in walking and some resultant stresses

Analysis of ground-to-foot force and leg-segment displacement measurements for the walking human allows calculation of farces in muscles and ligaments at leg joints. Simplified calculations can then be made for the stresses on the femur
  • John P. Paul


From experimental measurements of groundto-foot force action and limb configurations, resultant load actions at junctions of leg segments can be calculated. From a knowledge of the phasic activity of muscles and their anatomical location, the tension in relevant muscles and ligaments may be inferred, and the joint forces obtained. From the measured geometry of the femur calculations are made of the stresses on the basis of simplifying assoumptions of material disposition and behavior.


Mechanical Engineer Fluid Dynamics Experimental Measurement Phasic Activity Anatomical Location 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Backman, S., “The Proximal End of the Femur,” Acta, Radiol. Supp., 146 (1957).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blount, W., “Don't Throw Away the Cane,”Jnl. Bone. Jt. Surg.,38A,695 (1956).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Braune, W. and Fischer O., “Der Gang des Menschen,” Abh. d. Koenigl Saechs, Gesellsch. d. Wissensch. Math. Phys.,21–28 (1898–1904).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bresler, B. andFrankel, J. P., “The Forces and Moments in the Leg Durng Walking,”Trans. ASME,72,27 (1950).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Evans, F. G., “Stress and strain in Bones,”Thomas, Springfield, Ill. (1957).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frankel, V. H., “The Femoral Neck,”Almqvist & Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden (1960).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Grunewald, J., “Die Beansprunchung der longen Rohrenknochen des Menchen,”Zt. Orthop Chir.,39,27,129 and 257 (1920).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Inman, V. T., “Functional Aspects of the Abductor Muscules of the Hip,”Jnl. Bone. Jt. Surg.,39 (3),607 (1947).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Koch, J. C., “The Laws of Bone Architecture,”Am. Jnl. Anat.,21,177 (1917).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    McElhaney, J., Fogle, J., Byars, E. F., andWeaver, G., “Effect of Embalming on the Mechanical Properties of Beef Bone,”Jnl. Appl. Physiol.,19 (6),1234 (1964).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McElhaney, J. and Byars, E. F., “Dynamic Response of Biological Materials,” ASME Paper No. 65—WA/HUF—9 (1965).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Morrison, J. B., “The Forces Transmitted by the Human Knee Joint During Activity,”Ph.D. thesis, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland (1967).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Paul, J. P., “Forces Transmitted by Joints in the Human Body,”Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.,181 (31),8 (1967 a).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Paul, J. P., “Forces at, the Human Hip Joint,”Ph.D. thesis, University of Glasgow, Scotland (1967 b).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pauwels, F., “Der Schenkelhalsbruch ein mechanisches Problem,”Ferdinand Enke, Stuttgort, Germany (1935).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rydell, N. W., “Forces Acting on, the Femoral Head Prosthesis,” Acta. Orthop., Scand. Suppl. 88 (1966).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sedlin, E. D., “A Rheological Model for Cortical Bone,” Acta. Orthop., Scand. Suppl. 83 (1965).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Strange, F. G. St. C., “The Hip,”Heinemann, London (1963).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Williams, J. F., “A Stress Analysis of the Proximal End of the Femur,”M. Eng. Sc. Thesis.University Melbourne, Australia (1964).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Williams, J. F., “A Force Analysis of the Hip Joint,”Bio. Med. Eng. Jnl. 3 (8),365 (1968).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • John P. Paul
    • 1
  1. 1.Bioengineering UnitUniversity of StrathclydeGlasgow CIScotland

Personalised recommendations