# Study of basic patterns of light scattering in aqueous solution of milling yellow

- 53 Downloads
- 6 Citations

## Abstract

Basic characteristics of light scattering in an aqueous solution of milling yellow are presented in a form of relations between the scattered radiant power, states of polarization of primary radiation and scattered radiation, observation angle and azimuthal angle.

It is found that the state of polarization of the scattered light in milling-yellow solution can be utilized as a foundation of reliable photoelastic scattered-light techniques for flow analysis. However, Rayleight's model of scattering is nnt directly applicable.

Paper contains data on major parameters of light scattering, knowledge of which is necessary to correctly design flowbirefringence experiments. In particular, these data can be used to develop a set of conditions and constraints for designing of particular scattered-light flow-birefringence experiments, and of corresponding transfer functions.

## Keywords

Radiation Aqueous Solution Milling Transfer Function Fluid Dynamics## List of Symbols

*a*radius of scattering spherical particle

*C*concentration of the birefringent solution

*H*_{v},*H*_{h}linearly polarized scattered-light component vibrating in the plane of observation when the linearly polarized primary beam is vibrating in a plane normal to the plane of observation, and vibrating in the plane of observation, respectively, for the direction of observation θ=π/2

*V*_{v},*V*_{h}linearly polarized scattered-light components vibrating in a plane normal to the plane of observation when the linearly polarized primary beam is vibrating in a plane normal to the plane of observation, and vibrating in the plane of observation, respectively, for the direction of observation, θ=π/2

*I*_{o},*I*_{s}intensities of primary beam and of scattered beam, respectively, in the solution at rest

*I*_{θ},*I*_{ϕ}intensities of scattered beam in the plane of observation, and in a plane normal to the plane of observation, respectively, for the direction of observation given by the angle θ, and for linearly polarized primary beam vibrating at the azimuthal angle ϕ

*k*parameter of scattering

*M*multiplication constant of the phototube

*n*average refractive index

*r*distance from the scattering particles to the point of observation; normalized intensity of scattered light

*S*_{p}sensitivity of the photocathode (A/W)

*T*temperature

*t*time; duration of standing; age

- λ
radiation wavelength

- ϱ
depolarization ratio

- θ
observation angle

- ϕ
azimuthal angle between the linearly polarized primary beam and the observation plane

- ψ
azimuth of the linearly polarized scattered beam with respect to the observation plane

- Δψ
relative phase retardation

- Ω
load resistance

## Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

## References

- 1.
- 2.
- 3.
*Born, M. and Wolf, E., “Principles of Optics,” Pergamon Press (1964)*.Google Scholar - 4.
*Pindera, J.T.*and*Straka, P.*, “*Response of Integraded Polariscope*,”*J. of Strain Anal.*,**8**(*1*),*65–76*(*1973*).Google Scholar - 5.
*Pindera, J.T., and Krishnamurthy, A.R., “Foundations of Flow Birefringence in Some Liquids,” In: Experimental Mechanics in Research and Development, Proceedings of International Symposium on Experimental Mechanics, University of Waterloo, June 12–16, 1972. Edited by J.T. Pindera, H.H.E. Leipholz, F.P.J. Rimrott, D.E. Grierson, SM Study No. 9, Solid Mechanics Division, University of Waterloo, 565–599 (1973)*.Google Scholar - 6.
*Pindera, J.T., Straka, P.*and*Krishnamurthy, A.R.*, “*Rheological Responses of Materials Used in Model Mechanics*,”*Proc. of the Fifth Intern. Conf. on Exp. Stress Anal., May 27–31, 1974, Udine, Italy, CISM, Udine, 2.85–2.98*(*1974*).Google Scholar - 7.
*Pindera, J.T., Alpay, S.A.*and*Krishnamurthy, A.R.*, “*New Developments in Model Studies of Liquid Flow by Means of Flow Birefringence*,”*Trans. of the CSME*,**3**(*2*),*95–102*(*1975*).Google Scholar - 8.
*Pindera, J.T.*and*Krishnamurthy, A.R.*, “*Characteristic Relations of Flow Birefringence, Part 1: Relations in Transmitted Radiation*,”Experimental Mechanics,**18**(*2*),*1–10*(*Jan. 1978*).Google Scholar - 9.
*Pindera, J.T.*and*Krishnamurthy, A.R.*, “*Characteristic Relations of Flow Birefringence, Part 2: Relations in Scattered Radiation*,”Experimental Mechanics,**18**(*2*),*41–48*(*Feb. 1978*).Google Scholar - 10.
*Krishnamurthy, A.R. and Pindera, J.T., “On the Dependence of Flow Birefringence Parameters on Spectral Frequency and Shear Strain Rates.” Proc. The VIIth International Congress on Rheology, Chalmers University of Technology, Aug. 23–27, 1976, Gothenburg, Sweden, 614–615*.Google Scholar - 11.
*Pindera, J.T.*, “*Optimizations of Flow Birefringence Measurements by Rational Choice of Spectral Frequency of Birefringence-Detecting Radiation*,”*In*: “*Flow Visualization*,”*Proceedings of the International Symposium on Flow Visualization, October 12–14, 1977, Tokyo, Japan*.*Edited by Tsuyoshi Asanuma*.*Hemisphere Publishing Corp. and McGraw-Hill Intern. Book Co., New York*(*1979*).Google Scholar - 12.
*Hoover, C.R., Putman, F.W. and Wittenberg, E.G., “The Depolarization of Tyndall-Scattered Light of Bentonite and Ferric Oxide Sols.,” 18th Colloidal Symposium, Cornell, Ithaca, NY (June 19–21, 1941)*.Google Scholar - 13.
*Schurcliff, W.A., “Polarized Light,” Harvard University Press (1962)*.Google Scholar - 14.
*Heller, W.*, “*Anisotropic Light Scattering of Streaming Suspensions and Solutions*,”*Review of Modern Physics*,**II**(*4*)*10*(*1959*).Google Scholar - 15.
*Heller, W., Wada, E.*and*Papazian, L.A.*, “*Macromolecular Shape from Light Scattering in Streaming Solutions*,”*J. of Pol. Science*,**XLVII**,*149*(*1960*).Google Scholar - 16.
*Nakagaki, M., Heller, W.*, “*Anisotropic Light Scattering of Flowing Flexible Macromolecules*,”*Jol. Pol. Sci.*,**38**,*117–131*(*1959*).Google Scholar - 17.
*Weller, R., “Three Dimensional Photoelasticity Using Scattered Light,”**J. of Applied Physics*,**12**(*8*) (*1941*).Google Scholar - 18.
*Jessop, H.T. “The Scattered Light Method of Exploration of Stresses in Two and Three-Dimensional Models,”**British J. of Appl. Physics*,**2**(*9*(*1951*).Google Scholar - 19.
*Frocht, M.M. and Srinath, L.S., “A Non-Destructive Method for Three-Dimensional Photoelasticity,” Proc., 3rd U.S. Natinal Cong. of Appl. Mech., ASME, New York (June 1958)*.Google Scholar - 20.
*Srinath, L.S.*and*Frocht, M.M.*, “*Potentialities of the Method of Scattered Light*,”*Proc. Intern. Symp. on Photoelasticity, Pergamon Press, Inc., New York*(*1962*).Google Scholar - 21.
*McAfee, W.J.*and*Pih, H.*, “*Scattered-light Flow-optic Relations Adaptable to Three-dimensional Flow Birefringence*,”Experimental Mechanics,**24**(*10*)*385–391*(*1974*).Google Scholar - 22.
*Smith, W.J., “Modern Optical Engineering,” McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1966)*.Google Scholar - 23.
*Krishnamurthy, A.R., “On Spectral Birefringence and Scattering of Light in Flowing Milling Yellow,” Ph.D. Thesis, Civil Engineering Department, University of Waterloo (July 1972)*.Google Scholar