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Mode II fracture-parameter estimates for concrete from beam specimens

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Abstract

At the present time, work on determination of fracture parameters for concrete subjected solely to mode I deformation states has advanced to the point where standard methods of testing and data evaluation have been proposed. Thus, many researchers are now considering the dual problems of (1) determination of fracture parameters for mode II deformation and (2) the need for this information (or put another way—the possible application of this information). In fact, the physical testing arrangements for mode II testing with no influence of mode I are not obvious; compromises must be made which will lead to approximations—perhaps fairly gross—in the estimates of mode II fracture parameters.

Herein are presented experimental and analytical results for fracture parameters for beams loaded in antisymmetric four-point bending with a single-edge starter notch located in a region of high-shear and low-bending moment. This study complements another, presented elsewhere, in which beams in three-point bending were used with notches located off center.

From this study, which included tests on 18 beam specimens, the following conclusions are reached. The beams must be tested in strain control. Crack initiation started in mode II but quickly changed to a mixed mode (although finite-element calculations indicate mode I is dominant). The fracture energy associated with the onset of unstable crack propagation is much larger than normally obtained for mode I—this is thought to be due to extensive aggregate interlock forces not present in normal bending or direct tension tests. Probably this type of testing arrangement is not suitable for determination of mode II fracture parameters because propagation does not occur under mode II conditions.

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Abbreviations

a o ,a α :

notch depth, inclined crack length at failure

B, W, L, S :

width, depth, length and span of test beam

CMSD:

crack-mouth sliding displacement

CMOD:

crack-mouth opening displacement

E c, μ :

modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio

f c ′,f t ′:

uniaxial compression and tensile strength of concrete

G I ,G II :

mode I, mode II fracture-energy release rate—subscriptc indicates the critical value at onset of unstable crack growth

K I ,K II ,K III :

modes I, II, III stress-intensity factors (subscriptc indicates the critical value at onset of unstable crack growth)

K e c K t II :

experimental mixed mode and theoretical mode II stress-intensity factors

LPD:

load-point displacement

mg :

weight of the beam

O :

shear force at notch location

P,P 1,P m :

load, load at onset of crack growth, and maximum load

U :

area under the P-LPD curve up to the point of instability

α:

crack inclination angle with vertical

\(\bar \delta _o \) :

load-point displacement at onset of crack growth

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Swartz, S.E., Lu, L.W., Tang, L.D. et al. Mode II fracture-parameter estimates for concrete from beam specimens. Experimental Mechanics 28, 146–153 (1988). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02317565

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