Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride elicits and intensifies the clinical expression of neuropathic insults
It has been recently reported that phenyl-methanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) when given to hens after a neuropathic organophosphate (OP) promotes organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP). Chicks are resistant to OPIDP despite high inhibition/aging of neuropathy target esterase (NTE), the putative target of OPIDP initiation. However, when PMSF (300 mg/kg s.c.) is given to chicks after di-butyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DBDCVP, 1 or 5 mg/kg s.c.), OPIDP is promoted. Inhibition/aging of at least 30% of NTE was thought to be an essential prerequisite for promotion to be elicited in adult hens. However, we observed in hens that when NTE is maximally affected (>90%) by phenyl N-methyl N-benzyl carbamate (40 mg/kg i.V.), a non-ageable inhibitor of NTE, and then PMSF is given (120 mg/kg/day s.c. × 3 days) clinical signs of neuropathy become evident. Methamidophos (50 mg/kg p. o. to hens), which produces in vivo a reactivatable form of inhibited NTE, was shown either to protect from or promote OPIDP caused by DBDCVP (0.45 mg/kg s. c), depending on the sequence of dosing. Because very high doses of methamidophos cause OPIDP, we considered this effect to be a “self-promoted” OPIDP. We concluded that NTE inhibitors might have different intrinsic activities for producing OPIDP once NTE is affected. Aging might differentiate highly neuropathic OPs, like DBDCVP, from less neuropathic OPs, like methamidophos, or from the least neuropathic carbamates, which require promotion in order for neuropathy to be expressed. Retrograde axonal transport in motor fibers was measured as the accumulation of125 I-tetanus toxin in spinal cord after injection in the gastrocnemius muscle of chicks treated either with DBDCVP (5 mg/kg s.c.) or with DBDCVP followed by PMSF (300 mg/kg s.c). Retrograde axonal transport was reduced in both groups (to about 50%, 10 days after dosing) and returned to normal 27 days after dosing. However, DBDCVP-treated chicks had a mild neuropathy which recovered relatively quickly, whereas chicks to which PMSF was also given had more severe signs which did not recover by day 27. We concluded that promotion affects a site other than NTE and that it acts at a point downstream from initiation. PMSF was also shown to promote 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) neuropathy. 2,5-HD was given to hens at doses (200 mg/kg/day i.p. × 8 days) which caused mild and reversible neuropathy. When PMSF (120 mg/kg/day × 2 days at the end of 2,5-HD treatment) was given, more severe and irreversible signs of neuropathy were observed. We conclude that promotion might be a common feature in neuropathies of different origin.
Key wordsOrganophosphate neuropathy Neuropathy target esterase Promotion Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride 2,5-Hexanedione Carbamates Methamidophos Age sensitivity Retrograde axonal transport
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