Long-term instructional development: A 20-year ID and implementation project

  • Howard Sullivan
  • Kay Ice
  • Fred Niedermeyer


This article describes the development and implementation in the schools over a 20-year period of the Energy Source Program, a comprehensive K-12 energy education curriculum. The program was developed beginning in 1980 using state-of-the-art development procedures for that time and has been used to date by more than 12 million American students to learn about energy and energy issues. End-of-unit posttest scores for the elementary and high school units averaged above 80% for their field tests. Data obtained from a large sample during the first three years of installation of the program in the schools indicated that posttest scores remained at a level during installation similar to that during the field-test phase. A study conducted in the early 1990s by an independent research organization to assess the program's long-term effects revealed that grade 6 students who had used one or more units from the program had significantly greater energy knowledge and better energy conservation habits than students who had not used any units. A set of 10 guidelines are offered for long-term instructional development and implementation projects.


High School Field Test Energy Conservation Educational Technology Research Organization 
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Copyright information

© the Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Howard Sullivan
    • 1
  • Kay Ice
  • Fred Niedermeyer
  1. 1.Educational Technology Program at Arizona State UniversityUSA

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