A review of the literature indicates that the introduction of humor as an instructional strategy in computer-based instruction (CBI) has not been studied as much as the effects of humor use in the classroom and other media. In this article humor theories are summarized, examples of humor research are provided, and perspectives on the relationships between humor, affect, motivation, information processing, and learner characteristics are discussed. Also, general guidelines for incorporating humor in CBI are suggested, and a research agenda is proposed that would support more definitive prescriptions for humor applications that reflect the affordances of modern instructional technology.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Allen, G.W., & Clark, H.H. (1962).Literary criticism: Pope to Croce. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation.Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261–271.
Anderson, J.R. (1985).Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: W.H. Freeman & Co.
Anderson, P.M. (1989). American humor, handicapism, and censorship.Journal of Reading, Writing, and Learning Disabilities International, 4(2), 79–87.
Arnone, M.P., Grabowski, B.L., & Rynd, C.P. (1994). Curiosity as a personality variable influencing learning in a learner control lesson.Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(1), 5–20.
Bandura, L.W. (1986).Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bereiter, C. (1991, April). Implications of connectionism for thinking about rules.Educational Researcher, 10–16.
Berlyne, D.E. (1960).Conflict, arousal, and curiosity. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Breivik, P.S., & Senn, J.A. (1993).Information literacy: Educating children for the 21st century. Bergenfield, NJ: Scholastic, Inc.
Brierley, V. (1980). Itineraire [Itinerary].Francais dans le monde, 151, 42–44.
Brockner, J. (1979). Self esteem, self-concept, and task performance: Replications, extensions, and possible explanations.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 447–461.
Brody, P.J. (1982). Affecting instructional textbooks through pictures. In D.H. Jonassen (Ed.),The technology of text: Principles for structuring, designing, and displaying text (Vol. I, pp. 301–316). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
Brodzinsky, D.M., & Rubien, J. (1976). Humor production as a function of sex of subject, creativity, and cartoon content.Journal of consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44(4), 597–600.
Brophy, J. (1987, October). Synthesis of research on strategies for motivating students to learn.Educational Researcher, 40–48.
Brown, A., & Itzig, J. (1976).The introduction of humor and anxiety in academic test situations. Southern Methodist University. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 152 783
Brown, I. (1994). Perception of humor in cartoon riddles by adults with intellectual disabilities.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78(3), 817.
Brown, J.S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989, Jan–Feb). Situated cognition and the culture of learning.Educational Leadership, 32–42.
Bryant, J., Brown, D., Silverberg, A.J., & Elliott, S.M. (1981). Effects of humorous illustrations in college textbooks.Human Communication Research, 8(1), 43–57.
Bryant, J., Gula, J., & Zillmann, D. (1980). Humor in communication textbooks.Communication Education, 29, 110–118.
Bryant, J., & Zillmann, D. (1988). Using humor to promote learning in the classroom.Journal of Children in Contemporary Society, 20 (1–2), 49–78.
Callaway, R. (1990).Satire and humor in education: Selected readings. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Cantor, J., & Venus, P. (1980). The effect of humor on recall of radio advertisement.Journal of Broad-casting, 24, 13–22.
Carlson, P.A. (1990, April). Square books and round books: Cognitive implications of hypertext.Academic Computing. 16–31.
Cazden, C.B. (1986). Classroom discourse. In M.C. Wittrock (Ed.),Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 432–463). New York: MacMillan.
Chapman, A.J., & Crompton, P. (1978). Humorous presentations of material and presentation of humorous material: A review of humour and memory literature and two experimental studies. In M.M. Gruneberg, P.E. Morris, & R.N. Sykes (Eds.),Practical aspects of memory (pp. 84–92). London: Academic Press.
Chapman, A.J., & Foot, H.C. (1976). Introduction. In A.J. Chapman & H.C. Foot (Eds.),Humour and laughter: Theory, research and applications (pp. 1–7). London: John Wiley & Sons.
Civikly, J.M. (1986, June). Humor and the enjoyment of college teaching.New directions for teaching and learning No. 26 (Communicating in college classrooms), 61–70.
Clabby, J.F., Jr. (1979). Humor as a preferred activity of the creative and humor as a facilitator of learning.Psychology: A Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior, 16(1), 5–12.
Clark, R.E. (1994a). Media will never influence learning.Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(2), 21–29.
Clark, R.E. (1994b). Media and method.Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(3), 7–10.
Clark, R.E., & Sugrue, B.M. (1991). Research on instructional media: 1978–1988. In G.J. Anglin (Ed.),Instructional technology: Past, present, and future (pp. 327–343). Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1990, August–September). Anchored instruction and its relationship to situated cognition.Educational Researcher, 2–10.
Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1992). Technology and the design of generative learning environments. In T.M. Duffy & D.H. Jonassen (Eds.),Constructivism and the technology of instruction: A conversation (pp. 77–89). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cohen, P. (1995). Developing information literacy.Education Update, 37(2), 1–8.
Coleman, J. (1992). All seriousness aside: The laughing-learning connection.International Journal of Instructional Media, 19(3), 269–276.
Cornett, C.E. (1986). Learning through laughter: Humor in the classroom.Fastback 241. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa.
Cousins, N. (1979).Anatomy of an illness as perceived by the patient. New York: Norton.
Dansereau, D.F., Collins, K.W., McDonald, B.A., Holley, C.D., Garland, J.C., Diekhoff, G.M., & Evans, S.H. (1979). Development and evaluation of an effective learning strategy program.Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 61–68.
Dardick, G. (1990). Learning to laugh on the job.Principal, 69(5), 32–34.
Day, H.I. (1982, May). Curisoity and the interested explorer.NSPI Journal, 19–21.
Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985).Intrinsic motivation and self determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.
DeSousa, M.A., & Medhurst, M.J. (1982). The editorial cartoon as visual rhetoric: Rethinking Boss Tweed.Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging, 2(2), 43–52.
Dick, W. (1992). Constructivism and instructional design. In T.M. Duffy & J.H. Jonassen (Eds.),Constructivism and the technology of instruction: A conversation (pp. 91–98). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Eastman, M. (1936).Enjoyment of laughter. New York: Crowell.
Erickson, S.C. (1987, Spring). Giving a “good” lecture.Update on Teaching, 5(2).
Ferguson, W., Bareiss, R., Birnbaum, L., & Osgood, R. (April, 1992) Asks systems: An approach to the realization of story-based teachers. Technical Report, The Institute for the Learning Sciences, Northwestern University: Evanston, Il.
Fiderio, S. (1986, May). Humor, interactivity enhance CBT training.Computerworld, 60–61.
Freud, S. (1960).Jokes and their relation to the unconscious. New York: Norton. (Original work published 1905.)
Gagné, R.M. (1985).The conditions of learning (4th ed.) New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Gagné, R.M., & Briggs, L.J. (1979).Principles of instructional design. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Gagné, R.M., & Driscoll, M.P. (1988).Essentials of learning for instruction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Goldstein, J.H., & McGhee, P.E. (1972). Foreword. In J.H. Goldstein & P.E. McGhee (Eds.),The psychology of humor (pp. xiii-xvii). New York: Academic Press.
Goor, M. (1989). Humor in the classroom: Options for enhancing learning. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 332 090
Gorham, J., & Christophel, D.M. (1990). The relationship of teachers' use of humor in the classroom to immediacy and student learning.Communication Education, 39(1), 46–62.
Grace, A. (1991).Comedians. Charlottesville, VA: Thomasson-Grant.
Gruner, C.R. (1967). Effects of humor on speaker ethos and audience information gain.Journal of Communication, 17, 228–233.
Gruner, C.R. (1976). Wit and humor in mass communication. In A.J. Chapman & H.C. Foot (Eds.),Humour and laughter: Theory, research and applications (pp. 287–312). London: John Wiley & Sons.
Gruner, C.R. (1978).Understanding laughter: The workings of wit & humor. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Guegan-Fisher, C. (1975).Culture through humor in the classroom. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 138 071
Hannafin, M.J., & Hooper, S.R. (1993). Learning principles. In M. Fleming & W. Levie (Eds.),Instructional message design: Principles from the behavioral and cognitive sciences (pp. 191–231). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
Hauck, W.E., & Thomas, J.W. (1972). The relationship of humor to intelligence, creativity, and intentional and incidental learning.Journal of Experimental Education, 40(4), 52–55.
Hebb, D.O. (1972).A textbook of psychology (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
Heitzmann, W.R. (1979). The political cartoon as a teaching device.Teaching Political Science, 6(2), 166–184.
Hicken, S., Sullivan, H., & Klein, J. (1992). Learner control modes and incentive variations in computer-delivered instruction.Educational Technology Research and Development, 40(4), 15–38.
Hill, D.J. (1988).Humor in the classroom: A handbook for teachers (and other entertainers). Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas Publisher.
Horn, G. (1972, December). Laughter … A saving grace.Today's Education, 37–38.
Howe, F.C. (1993). Developmental trends.Child Study Journal, 23(4), 327–346.
Igbalajobi, M. (1986). The effects of ridicule on the academic performance of secondary school students.Negro Educational Review, 37(1), 39–45.
Jensen, E. (1988).Superteaching: Master strategies for building student success. Del Mar, CA: Turning Point.
Jih, H.J., & Reeves, T.C. (1992). Mental models: A research focus for interactive learning systems.Educational Technology Research and Development, 40(3), 39–53.
Jonassen, D.H. (1982). Advance organizers in text. In D.H. Jonassen (Ed.),The technology of text: Principles for structuring, designing, and displaying text (Vol I, pp. 253–275). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
Jonassen, D.H. (1988). Integrating learning strategies into a course to facilitate deeper processing. In D.H. Jonassen (Ed.),Instructional designs for microcomputer courseware (pp. 151–181). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Jonassen, D.H., Grabinger, R.S., & Harris, N.D.C. (1991). Analyzing and selecting instructional strategies and tactics.Performance Improvement Quarterly, 4(2), 77–97.
Kaplan, R.K., & Pascoe, G.C. (1977). Humorous lectures and humorous examples: Some effects upon comprehension and retention.Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 61–65.
Keller, J.M. (1979). Motivation and instructional design.Journal of Instructional Development, 2, 26–34.
Keller, J.M. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.),Instructional-design theories and models: An overview of their current status (pp. 383–434). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kennedy, A.J. (1972).An experimental study of the effects of humorous message content upon ethos and persuasiveness. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Koestler, A. (1964).The act of creation. London: Macmillan & Company.
Kozma, R.B. (1991). Learning with media.Review of Educational Research, 61(2), 179–212.
Kozma, R.B. (1992, April).Visualization, sonification, and virtual reality: Mapping external representations onto external meaning. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.
Kozma, R.B. (1994a). Will media influence learning? Reframing the debate.Educational Technology Research & Development, 42(2), 7–19.
Kozma, R.B. (1994b). A reply: Media and method.Educational Technology Research & Development, 42(3), 11–13.
LaFave, L., Haddad, J., & Maesen, W.A. (1976). Superiority, enhanced self-esteem, and perceived incongruity humour theory. In A.J. Chapman & H.C. Foot (Eds.),Humour and laughter: Theory, research and applications (pp. 63–91). London: John Wiley & Sons.
Larson, G. (1982). Humorous teaching makes serious learning.Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 8(3), 197–199.
Laurel, B. (Ed.). (1990).The art of human-computer interface design. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.
Laurel, B. (1991).Computers as theater. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.
Lebow, D. (1993). Constructivist values for instructional systems design: Five principles toward a new mindset.Educational Technology Research & Development, 41(3), 4–16.
Lepper, M.R., & Greene, D. (1978). Over justification research and beyond: Toward a means-ends analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In M.R. Lepper & D. Greene (Eds.),The hidden costs of reward: New perspectives on the psychology of human motivation (pp. 109–148). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Lodish, R. (1993). A world of difference.Principal, 73(1), 41–42.
MacHovec, F.J. (1988).Humor: Theory, history, applications. Springfield, IL.: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
Markiewicz, D. (1974). The effects of humor on persuasion.Sociometry, 37, 407–422.
Martin, B.L., & Briggs, L.J. (1986).The affective and cognitive domains: Integration for instruction and research. Englewood, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
Mayer, R.E. (1980). Elaboration techniques that increase the meaningfulness of technical text: An experimental test of the learning strategy hypothesis.Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 770–784.
McGhee, P.E. (1974). Development of children's ability to create the joking relationship.Child Development, 45(2), 552–556.
McGhee, P.E. (1980). Toward the integration of entertainment and educational functions of television. In P.H. Tannenbaum (Ed.),The entertainment functions of television (pp. 183–208). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
McGhee, P.E. (1983). Humor development: Toward a life span approach. In P.E. McGhee & J.H. Goldstein (Eds.),Handbook of humor research (Vol. I, pp. 109–134). New York: Springer-Verlag.
McGhee, P.E., & Goldstein, J.H. (1983). Preface. In P.E. McGhee & J.H. Goldstein (Eds.),Handbook of humor research (Vol. II, p. vi). New York: Springer-Verlag.
McKeachie, W.J. (1990). Research on college teaching.Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 189–200.
Mechanic, D. (1962).Students under stress: A study of the social psychology of adaptation. New York: The Free Press.
Merrill, M.D. (1980). Learner control in computer-based learning.Computers & Education, 4, 77–95.
Minsky, M. (1984). Jokes and the logic of the cognitive unconscious. In L. Vaina & J. Hintikka (Eds.),Cognitive constraints on communication (pp. 175–200). Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company.
Monson, D. (1968). Children's test responses to seven humorous stories.Elementary School Journal, 58, 334–339.
Monson, J.A. (1994, September/October). Getting serious about humor.Gifted Child Today, 14–40.
Morreall, J. (1983).Taking laughter seriously. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., Gopalakrishnan, M., & Casey, J. (1995). The effects of feedback and incentives on achievement in computer-based instruction.Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20, 32–50.
Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., & Johnsey, A. (1994, February).The use of generative learning strategies in computer-based instruction. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Nashville, TN.
Muir, F. (1990).The oxford book of humorous prose. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nerhardt, G. (1976). Incongruity and funniness: Towards a new descriptive model. In A.J. Chapman & H.C. Foot (Eds.),Humour and laughter: Theory, research and applications (pp. 55–62). London: John Wiley & Sons.
Neuliep, J.W. (1991). An examination of the content of high school teachers' humor in the classroom and the development of an inductively derived taxonomy of classroom humor.Communication Education, 40(4), 343–355.
Padus, E. (1992).The complete guide to your emotions and your health. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press.
Parsons, J.B. (1977). Competency-based teacher education module (No. 2499) on classroom humor.Contemporary Education, 48(2), 110–111.
Paulos, J.A. (1980).Mathematics and humor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Paulos, J.A. (1985).I think, therefore I laugh: An alternative approach to philosophy. New York: Columbia University Press.
Pintrich, P.R., & Garcia, T. (1994). Self-regulated learning in college students: Knowledge, strategies, and motivation. In P.R. Pintrich, D.R. Brown, & C.E. Weinstein (Eds.),Student motivation, cognition, and learning (pp. 113–133). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Powell, J.P., & Anderson, L.W. (1985). Humour and teaching in higher education.Studies in Higher Education, 10(1), 79–90.
Rareshide, S.W. (1993).Implications for teachers' use of humor in the classroom. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 359 165
Reigeluth, C.M. (Ed.). (1987).Instructional theories in action: Lessons illustrating selected theories and models. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Reigeluth, C.M. (1989). Educational technology at the crossroads: New mindsets and new directions.Educational Technology Research & Development, 37(1), 1042–1629.
Robinson, V.M. (1983). Humor and health. In P.E. McGhee & J.H. Goldstein (Eds.),Handbook of humor research (Vol. II, pp. 109–128). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Roman, D. (1985). Laughter leavens learning.Computer Decisions, 70, 72.
Rothbart, M.K. (1976). Incongruity, problem-solving and laughter. In A.J. Chapman & H.C. Foot (Eds.),Humour and laughter: Theory, research and applications (pp. 37–54). London: John Wiley & Sons.
Salomon, G. (1974). What is learned and how it is taught.: The interaction between media, message, task, and learner. In D.R. Olsen (Ed.),Media and symbols: The forms of expression, communication, and education. NSSE Yearbook (383–406). Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education.
Schank, R.C. (1990).Tell me a story. New York: Charles Schribner's Sons.
Schank, R.C., & Jona, M.Y. (1991). Empowering the student: New perspectives on the design of teaching systems.Journal of the Learning Sciences, 1(1), 7–35.
Sewell, E.H., Jr. (1979, March).Effect of cartoon illustrations on the comprehension and evaluation of information presented in the print and audio mode. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Association of Educational Communications and Technology, New Orleans, LA.
Sewell, E.H., Jr. (1980). Cartoon embellishments in information presentations.Educational Communications and Technology: A Journal of Theory, Research, and Development, 28(1), 39–46.
Short, E.J., Basili, L.A., & Schatschneider, C.H. (1993). Analysis of humor skills among elementary school students: Comparisons of children with and without intellectual handicaps.American Journal on Mental Retardation, 98(1), 63–73.
Shultz, T.R. (1974). Order of cognitive processing in humour appreciation.Canadian Journal of Psychology, 28, 409–420.
Shultz, T.R. (1976). A cognitive-developmental analysis of humour. In A.J. Chapman & H.C. Foot (Eds.),Humour and laughter: Theory, research and applications (pp. 11–36). London: John Wiley & Sons.
Shultz, T., & Scott, M. (1974). The creation of verbal humor.Canadian Journal of Psychology, 28, 421–425.
Singer, J.L., & Singer, D.G. (1979). Come back, Mr. Rogers, come back.Psychology Today, 56, 59–60.
Snetsinger, W.R., & Grabowski, B.L. (1993, October).The use of humorous visuals to enhance computer-based instruction. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association, Rochester, NY.
Snetsinger, W.R., & Grabowski, B.L. (1994, February).The use of humor in a CBI science lesson to enhance retention. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Nashville, TN.
Soukhanov, A.H. (Ed.). (1992).The American heritage dictionary of the English language, (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Stein, B.S., & Bransford, J.D. (1979). Constraints on effective elaboration: Effects of precision and subject generation.Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 769–777.
Stopsky, F. (1992).Humor in the classroom: A new approach to critical thinking. Lowell, MA: Discovery Enterprises.
Sullivan, H.J., Shultz, R.E., & Baker, R.L. (1971). Effects of systematic variations in reinforcement contingencies on learner performance.American Educational Research Journal, 8(1), 135–142.
Suls, J.M. (1972). A two-stage model for the appreciation of jokes and cartoons: An information-processing analysis. In J.H. Goldstein & P.E. McGhee (Eds.),The psychology of humor: Theoretical perspectives and empirical issues (pp. 81–100). New York: Academic Press.
Suls, J.M. (1983). Cognitive processes in humor appreciation. In P.E. McGhee & J.H. Goldstein (Eds.),Handbook of humor research (Vol. I, (pp. 38–57). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Surlin, S.H. (1978).Humor in television entertainment programming: Implications for social relations and social learning. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 162 374
Taylor, P.M. (1964). The effectiveness of humor in informative speeches.Central States Speech Journal, 5, 295–296.
Tennyson, R.D., & Buttrey, T. (1980). Advisement and management strategies as design variables in computer-assisted instruction.Educational Communications and Technology Journal, 28, 169–176.
Tessmer, M. (1993).Planning and conducting formative evaluations. London: Kogan Page.
Thompson, A.D., Simonson, M.R., & Hargrave, C.P. (1993).Educational technology: A review of the research (Rev. ed.). Washington, DC: Association for Educational Communications and Technology.
Torrance, E.P. (1974).The Torrance test of creative thinking. Lexington, MA: Ginn.
Turkel, S. (1984).Second self. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Vance, C.M. (1987). A comparative study on the use of humor in the design of instruction.Instructional Science, 16, 79–100.
Wakshlag, J.J., Day, K.D., & Zillmann, D. (1981). Selective exposure to educational television programs as a function of differently paced humorous inserts.Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 27–32.
Warnock, P. (1989). Humor as a didactic tool in adult education.Lifelong Learning: An Omnibus of Practice and Research, 12(8), 22–24.
Weaver, J., Zillmann, D., & Bryant, J. (1988). Effects of humorous distortions on children's learning from television: Further evidence.Communication Education, 37, 181–187.
Weinberg, M.D. (1973).The interactional effect of humor and anxiety on academic performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Yeshiva University, New York.
Weiner, B. (1980).Human motivation. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Wetzel, C.D., Radtke, P.H., & Stern, H.W. (1994).Instructional effectiveness of video media. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Wittrock, M.C. (1989). Generative processes of comprehension.Educational Psychologist, 24, 345–376.
Yerkes, R.M., & Dodson, J.D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation.Journal of Comparative Neurological Psychology, 18, 459–482.
Youngman, R.C. (1966).An experimental investigation of the effect of germane humor versus nongermane humor in an informative communication. Unpublished master's thesis, Ohio University, Athens.
Zillmann, D. (1977). Humour and communication: Introduction. In A.J. Chapman & H.C. Foot (Eds.),It's a funny thing, humour (pp. 291–302). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Zillmann, D. (1983). Disparagement humor. In P.E. McGhee & J.H. Goldstein (Eds.),Handbook of humor research (Vol. I, pp. 85–108). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Zillmann, D., & Bryant, J. (1983). Uses and effects of humor in educational ventures. In P.E. McGhee & J.H. Goldstein (Eds.),Handbook of humor research (Vol. II, (pp. 173–193). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Zillmann, D., & Bryant, J. (1988). Guidelines for the effective use of humor in children's educational television programs.Journal of Children in Contemporary Society, 20, 201–221.
Zillmann, D., Masland, J., Weaver, J., Lacey, L., Jacobs, N., Dow, J., Klein, C., & Baker, S. (1984). Effects of humorous distortions on children's learning from educational television.Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 802–812.
Zillmann, D., Williams, B.R., Bryant, J., Boynton, K.R., & Wolf, M.A. (1980). Acquisition of information from educational television programs as a function of differently paced humor inserts.Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 170–180.
Ziv, A. (1976). Facilitating effects of humor on creativity.Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 318–322.
Ziv, A. (1981).The psychology of humor. Tel Aviv: Yahdav.
Ziv, A. (1983). The influence of humorous atmosphere on divergent thinking.Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8(1), 68–75.
Ziv, A. (1984).Personality and sense-of-humor. New York: Springer Publishing.
Ziv, A. (1988a). Teaching and learning with humor: Experiment and replication.Journal of Experimental Education, 57(1), 5–15.
Ziv, A. (1988b).National styles of humor. New York: Greenwood Press.
He attributes his interest in humor to funny parents.
About this article
Cite this article
Teslow, J.L. Humor me: A call for research. ETR&D 43, 6–28 (1995) doi:10.1007/BF02300453
- Information Processing
- Educational Technology
- Research Agenda
- Instructional Strategy
- General Guideline