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U.S. professional football game-day attendance


This paper uses Tobit analysis to estimate a model which explains game-day attendance at professional football games in the U.S. Several potential determinants of attendance are accounted for in the model. The data used in the analysis pertain to 392 regular season games played during the 1986 and 1987 National Football League seasons. The estimation results suggest that attendance is greater when the opposing teams—particularly, the home team—are of higher quality. There is also evidence that games expected to be close in score are more heavily attended than those that are not. Rainy conditions reduce fan turnout, although warmer temperatures lessen the negative effect of precipitation. Higher ticket prices lead to lower attendance, and fans are apparently indifferent to whether games are played either indoors or outdoors.

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Welki, A.M., Zlatoper, T.J. U.S. professional football game-day attendance. Atlantic Economic Journal 27, 285–298 (1999).

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  • International Economic
  • Public Finance
  • Estimation Result
  • Warm Temperature
  • Potential Determinant