Media will never influence learning

  • Richard E. Clark

DOI: 10.1007/BF02299088

Cite this article as:
Clark, R.E. ETR&D (1994) 42: 21. doi:10.1007/BF02299088


The purpose of this discussion is to explain and sharpen different points of view about the impact of media and attributes of media on learning, motivation and efficiency gains from instruction. This paper is an attempt to summarize my arguments about the research and theory in this area and to respond to Robert Kozma's criticism of my earlier discussion of these issues. I will first briefly summarize my arguments about media effects; next I will attempt to characterize the many reactions to the controversial claim that media do not influence learning or motivation. Finally, I will respond to the specific criticisms advanced by Robert Kozma this issue.

Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard E. Clark
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Educational Psychology and Technology and Director of Professional StudiesUSA
  2. 2.the School of Education at the University of Southern California at Los AngelesUSA

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