How geographic maps increase recall of instructional text

  • Raymond W. Kulhavy
  • William A. Stock
  • William A. Kealy


This article reviews research on how geographic maps influence the recall of associated text. Drawing on literature from cartography and educational, experimental, and cognitive psychology, the authors describe a model of map-text learning based on dual-coding theory and focused on activities that take place during working memory operations. The instructional implications of the model are explored, and recommendations for instructional applications are given.


Cognitive Psychology Educational Technology Memory Operation Instructional Text Instructional Implication 
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Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond W. Kulhavy
    • 1
  • William A. Stock
    • 1
  • William A. Kealy
    • 2
  1. 1.Arizona State UniversityTempe
  2. 2.Texas A&M UniversityUSA

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