, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 207–215 | Cite as

The choice of constraints in correspondence analysis

  • Harvey Goldstein


A discussion of alternative constraint systems has been lacking in the literature on correspondence analysis and related techniques. This paper reiterates earlier results that an explicit choice of constraints has to be made which can have important effects on the resulting scores. The paper also presents new results on dealing with missing data and probabilistic category assignment.

Key words

constraint systems correspondence analysis dual scaling missing data optimal scaling probabilistic category assignment 


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Copyright information

© The Psychometric Society 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harvey Goldstein
    • 1
  1. 1.University of London Institute of EducationUSA

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