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A scaling model with response errors and intrinsically unscalable respondents

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Goodman contributed to the theory of scaling by including a category of intrinsically unscalable respondents in addition to the usual scale-type respondents. However, his formulation permits only error-free responses by respondents from the scale types. This paper presents new scaling models which have the properties that: (1) respondents in the scale types are subject to response errors; (2) a test of significance can be constructed to assist in deciding on the necessity for including an intrinsically unscalable class in the model; and (3) when an intrinsically unscalable class is not needed to explain the data, the model reduces to a probabilistic, rather than to a deterministic, form. Three data sets are analyzed with the new models and are used to illustrate stages of hypothesis testing.

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Dayton, C.M., Macready, G.B. A scaling model with response errors and intrinsically unscalable respondents. Psychometrika 45, 343–356 (1980).

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